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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 10 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Emotional Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 10 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Emotional Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 10 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Emotional Development

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Development Exploring Emotions Development of Emotion Temperament Attachment and Love

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Are Emotions? Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by –Behavioral expression –Conscious experience –Physiological arousal Positive and negative expressions Exploring Emotions

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Are Emotions? Exploring Emotions Facial expressions of basic emotions –Biological nature; same across cultures When, where, and how to express emotions are not culturally universal Biological roots…but shaped by culture and relationships

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. A Functionalist View of Emotion Individuals attempts to adapt to specific contextual demands Relational Linked with an individuals goals Nature of goal can affect experience Exploring Emotions

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Regulation Effectively managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal –Involves state of alertness or activation –States can be too high for effective functioning Development of Emotion

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developing Emotional Regulation Exploring Emotions As one ages or matures: Regulation shifts from external sources to internal resources Cognitive strategies for regulation and ability to shift focus increase Ability to effectively cope with stress increases Develop greater capacity to modulate emotional arousal More adept with age at selecting and managing situations, relationships

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Competence Skills Exploring Emotions Being aware of own emotional states and those of others Using appropriate emotional vocabulary Having empathic and sympathetic sensitivity to others experiences Seeing self as feeling like one wants to feel Understanding inner emotional states and outer expressions may not correspond Adaptively coping with negative emotions Being aware that emotional expression plays major role in relationships

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Early Developmental Changes In Emotions Development of Emotion Primary emotions –Present in humans and other animals –Appear in first six months of life –Surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust Self-conscious emotions –Appear in first 18 months to 2 years –Acquire and use societys standards and rules –Empathy, jealousy, and embarrassment

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Infant Crying Development of Emotion Basic cry –Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of cry, briefer silence, shorter inspiratory whistle, and brief rest Anger cry –Similar to basic cry, linked to exasperation or rage, with more excess air forced through vocal chords Pain cry –Sudden appearance of loud crying, no preliminary moaning; stimulated by high-intensity stimulus

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Infant Smiling Reflexive smile –Does not occur in response to external stimuli –Occurs during first month after birth, usually during sleep Social smile –Response to external stimulus –Occurs about 2 or 3 months of age –Typically in response to a face Development of Emotion

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fear First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos. Stranger anxiety infants fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos. –Affected by social context, strangers characteristics –Individual variations Separation protest crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age Development of Emotion

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Separation Protest in Four Cultures Development of Emotion Fig. 10.3

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Referencing Reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a specific situation Ability improves in second year of life Many 14- to 22-month-olds look at mothers face as source Development of Emotion

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Regulation and Coping Infants use self-soothing strategies for coping Later in infancy, attention is redirected or infant uses distraction to cope By age 2, toddlers use language Contexts influence emotional regulation Development of Emotion

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Early Childhood Young children experience many emotions Self-Conscious Emotions –Pride, shame, and guilt –First appear about age 2½ –Gender and behavioral differences exist –Ability to reflect on emotions increases with age –Emotional regulation affects peer relations Development of Emotion

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late Childhood Development of Emotion Increased ability to understand pride and shame Increased awareness that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation Increased tendency to take fuller account of events leading to emotional reactions Marked improvements in ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescence Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation –Girls more vulnerable to depression –Adolescent moodiness is normal –Hormonal changes and environmental experiences involved in changing emotions Development of Emotion

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Reported Extremes of Emotions by Adolescents and their Parents Development of Emotion Fig. 10.6

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood Adapt more effectively when emotionally intelligent Developmental changes in emotion continue through adult years Older adults have more positive emotions, report better control of emotions Development of Emotion

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult Years Development of Emotion Fig. 10.7

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory Older adults become more selective about their social networks –Place a high value on emotional satisfaction and maximize positive emotional experiences –Spend more time with familiar individuals providing rewarding relationships –Seek more emotion-related goals than knowledge-related goals Development of Emotion

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Model of Socio-emotional Selectivity Development of Emotion Fig. 10.8

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Temperament Individuals behavioral style and characteristic way of emotional response –Closely linked to personality Rothbart and Bates Classification –Extraversion urgency –Negative affectivity –Effortful control (self-regulation) Temperament

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chess and Thomas Classification Three basic types or clusters –Easy child: positive mood; quickly establishes routines; adapts easily to new experiences –Difficult child: reacts negatively; cries frequently; has irregular routines; slow to accept new experiences –Slow-to-warm-up child: low activity level; somewhat negative; shows low adaptability; displays low-intensity mood Temperament

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Kagans Behavioral Inhibition Differences between children –Shy, subdued, and timid –Sociable, extraverted, bold Inhibition shows considerable stability from infancy through early childhood Temperament

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Foundations and Experience Physiological characteristics are associated with different temperaments Heredity is aspect of temperaments biological foundations Attributes become more stable over time as self-perceptions, behavioral preferences, and social experiences form personality Temperament

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Connections Temperament ChildAdult Easy temperamentGood adjustment Difficult temperament Adjustment, school, and marital problems Inhibition Low assertiveness, job and school delays Good emotional control

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Contexts Gender may be important factor that influences fate of temperament Many aspects of childs environment encourage or discourage persistence of temperament characteristics Goodness of Fit –Match between childs temperament and environmental demands Temperament

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parenting and Childs Temperament Some temperament characteristics pose more challenges than others Management strategies that worked for one child may not work for next one –Be sensitive to individual characteristics of child –Structure the childs environment to provide as good a fit as possible with childs temperament –Avoid labeling as difficult child Temperament

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Attachment Attachment close emotional bond between two people Freud infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfaction –Harlows study proved otherwise Attachment and Love

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Attachment Erikson first year of life is key time for attachment development –Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations Bowlby stresses importance of attachment in first year and responsiveness of caregiver –Four phases of attachment in first 2 years Attachment and Love

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Individual Differences and the Strange Situation Ainsworths measure of infant attachment to caregiver –Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions –Some infants have more positive attachments than others Attachment and Love

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Attachment Categories Attachment and Love Insecure disorganized Securely attached Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant Shows insecurity by being disorganized, disoriented Caregiver is secure base to explore environment from Shows insecurity by avoiding the caregiver Clings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closeness

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Significance of Attachment Secure attachment in first year is important foundation for psychological development Some developmentalists believe too much emphasis on attachment bond in infancy –Ignores the diversity of socializing agents and contexts that exists in an infants world –Ignores that infants are highly resilient and adaptive Attachment and Love

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification Attachment and Love Babys AttachmentCaregiver Behavior Secure Sensitive to signals, available Avoidant Unavailable or rejecting Resistant Inconsistent Disorganized Neglect or physically abuse

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment Attachment and Love Fig

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mothers and Fathers as Caregivers Maternal interactions usually center on child-care activities –Feeding –Changing diapers –Bathing Paternal interactions more likely to include play, engage in rough-and-tumble acts Attachment and Love

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Child Care Many parents worry about childs care About 2 million children currently receive formal, licensed child care More than 5 million children in kindergarten Types of child care vary extensively in U.S. Attachment and Love

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Child Care Five types of parental leave from work –Maternity leave –Paternity leave –Parental leave –Child-rearing leave –Family leave Sweden has most extensive leave policies Attachment and Love

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Child Care Child care strategies for parents –Quality of parenting is key to childs development –Make decisions that enhance being good parents –Monitor childs development –Take time to find the best child care Child care may harm some children more than others Attachment and Love

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescence Attachment to parents –Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer and friendship relations –Dismissing/avoidant attachment: de-emphasize importance due to caregiver rejection –Preoccupied/ambivalent attachment: insecure adolescent due to inconsistent parenting –Unresolved/disorganized attachment: insecure adolescent, high fear due to traumatic experiences Attachment and Love

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Dating and Romantic Relationships Types of dating and developmental changes Dating scripts –Cognitive models that guide dating interactions Males are proactive, females are reactive Males seek physical attraction, females seek interpersonal qualities Emotion and romantic relationships Sociocultural contexts and dating Attachment and Love

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Age of Onset of Romantic Activity Fig

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Attachment in Adulthood Adults count on romantic partners to be a secure base to which they can return and obtain comfort, security in stressful times Infant attachment style often reflected in adult partnership Attachment and Love

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Romantic Love Also called passionate love or eros –Complex intermingling of emotions –Strong components of sexuality and infatuation –Often predominates early part of a love relationship Affectionate love or companionate love –Have deep, caring affection for person Attachment and Love

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love Theory that love includes three types –Passion: physical, sexual attraction –Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing –Commitment: intent to remain together Attachment and Love

48 Slide 48 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sternbergs Triangle of Love Fig

49 Slide 49 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 10


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