1 Slavery Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies * The territory gained by the US in the Mexican-American War greatly increased sectional tension.
2 Slavery & Westward Expansion 1846 David WilmotPenn.(Dem)The Wilmot Proviso: proposed that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico.Angered SouthernersNorthern Democrats & Whigs passed it in the House.Senate refused to vote on it (led by John C. Calhoun of SC)
3 Election of 1848. Two Political Parties were national parties Election of 1848 ** Two Political Parties were national parties ** Both parties tended to “sit on the lid” of the slavery issueDemocrats nominated Gen. Lewis Cass (veteran of 1812) –”father of popular sovereignty”Popular Sovereignty- allow the settlers who move to the territories to decide whether they want slavery or not (idea had lots of appeal) .Platform- silent on the issue of slavery in territories won from Mexico.
4 The Whigs Nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor (Southerner& slave holder) Platform- dodged all issues regarding slavery-talked about their candidate’s “homespun” appeal.The Free Soil Partyorganized by Conscience Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats; men in the North who did not trust Cass or Taylor on slavery.Platform: supported the Wilmot Proviso- against slavery in territories because slaves might take white settler’s jobs.Nominated- Martin Van Buren
5 Election 1848-Results Zachary Taylor won! Van Buren pulled votes from Cass in NY
6 Sectional Balance-South is well off a Southerner in the Whitehouse (La. -slaveholder)Southern majority on Supreme CourtSoutherners can block in the US SenateCotton fields expanding & profitable15 free/ 15 slave states= veto any proposed amendment
7 Gold Discovered In California 1848- Gold discovered near Sutter’s Mill on the American River= settlers & miners move west= (“Forty-Niners”).1849- enough people had moved to California = California applied for statehood as a free state (urged secretly by Taylor) & drafted a constitution that excluded slavery.Southern “Fire-eaters” threatened to secede.Major gold strikes
8 The Senate Debates the Issue Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, & Daniel Webster appeared on national stage for last time.Henry Clay proposed a series of compromises & was helped by young Sen. Stephen Douglas (Ill.)John C. Calhoun (SC) – rejected Clay’s compromises because they did not protect southern rights or property.Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves.
9 Seventh of March Speech Daniel Webster (68 yrs. Old)- liked Clay’s compromise; gave a 3 hour speech.Called Seventh of March Speech- urged concessions to the South (new Fugitive Slave Law), declared that God had already deemed much of the Mexican cession off limits to slavery-due to climate= no plantations.
10 **The Compromise of 1850:Pres. Taylor died & VP Millard Fillmore took overCalifornia in as a free state= tipped power in Senate permanently to the NorthNew Mexico & Utah- slavery decided by popular sovereignty (both unsuited for cotton)Slave trade outlawed in D.C. but not slavery itselfNew Fugitive Slave Act- “Bloodhound Bill”Mistake by the South!!
12 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850Any African-American could be accused as a runaway slave to be taken into custody of the white person accusing him/herNo trialFinancial incentives ($10) for federal judges who found in favor of slave holders.Any northerner could be compelled to catch runaways or face jail or fines.What does compelled mean?For example there was a man who had been free for 19 years and was returned to slavery
13 Effects of the Act Northerners upset – possible jail time Drove Northerners to acts of defiance (civil disobedience)Violence between abolitionists and pro- slavery advocates roseAbolitionists:Aided in the escape of slavesSent anti-slavery mailings to the southNortherners could be jailed if they did not assist in the capture of slavesMeant to benefit southern slaveholders but hurt them by outraging northerners who were previously indifferent
14 Henry David Thoreau Romantic Author Wrote ‘Civil Disobedience’ People should break a law if it is unjustAnti-slavery activists used this essay to justify defying the Fugitive Slave Acts
15 The Underground Railroad Escape routes for slavesDeepened Southern mistrust of NorthernersSafe houses aided runaway slavesBegan in the 1830sMembers were ‘conductors’Harriett Tubman – most famous conductorCalled Moses for leading her people to freedomUsed song to give directionsLevi Coffin –white man provided a safe house3 underground railroads converged at his houseLevi was a Quaker born in NC but moved to Indiana
16 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book about slave life Changed Northerner’s perceptions of slaverySold millions of copiesSoutherners tried to ban the bookBecause she changed perceptions she turned more people against slaverySoutherners said it was falsehoods and distortions of realitySome historians consider it a cause of the civil war
17 Frederick Douglass Former slave who escaped Powerful orator AbolitionistGave speeches to anti-slavery groups in the NorthUrged to enlist black troops