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Slavery Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery Chapter 8 -Sectional Conflict Intensifies
* The territory gained by the US in the Mexican-American War greatly increased sectional tension.

2 Slavery & Westward Expansion
1846 David Wilmot Penn.(Dem) The Wilmot Proviso: proposed that slavery not be allowed in any territory gained from Mexico. Angered Southerners Northern Democrats & Whigs passed it in the House. Senate refused to vote on it (led by John C. Calhoun of SC)

3 Election of 1848. Two Political Parties were national parties
Election of 1848 ** Two Political Parties were national parties ** Both parties tended to “sit on the lid” of the slavery issue Democrats nominated Gen. Lewis Cass (veteran of 1812) –”father of popular sovereignty” Popular Sovereignty- allow the settlers who move to the territories to decide whether they want slavery or not (idea had lots of appeal) . Platform- silent on the issue of slavery in territories won from Mexico.

4 The Whigs Nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor (Southerner& slave holder)
Platform- dodged all issues regarding slavery-talked about their candidate’s “homespun” appeal. The Free Soil Party organized by Conscience Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats; men in the North who did not trust Cass or Taylor on slavery. Platform: supported the Wilmot Proviso- against slavery in territories because slaves might take white settler’s jobs. Nominated- Martin Van Buren

5 Election 1848-Results Zachary Taylor won!
Van Buren pulled votes from Cass in NY

6 Sectional Balance-South is well off
a Southerner in the Whitehouse (La. -slaveholder) Southern majority on Supreme Court Southerners can block in the US Senate Cotton fields expanding & profitable 15 free/ 15 slave states= veto any proposed amendment

7 Gold Discovered In California
1848- Gold discovered near Sutter’s Mill on the American River= settlers & miners move west= (“Forty-Niners”). 1849- enough people had moved to California = California applied for statehood as a free state (urged secretly by Taylor) & drafted a constitution that excluded slavery. Southern “Fire-eaters” threatened to secede. Major gold strikes

8 The Senate Debates the Issue
Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, & Daniel Webster appeared on national stage for last time. Henry Clay proposed a series of compromises & was helped by young Sen. Stephen Douglas (Ill.) John C. Calhoun (SC) – rejected Clay’s compromises because they did not protect southern rights or property. Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves.

9 Seventh of March Speech
Daniel Webster (68 yrs. Old)- liked Clay’s compromise; gave a 3 hour speech. Called Seventh of March Speech- urged concessions to the South (new Fugitive Slave Law), declared that God had already deemed much of the Mexican cession off limits to slavery-due to climate= no plantations.

10 **The Compromise of 1850: Pres. Taylor died & VP Millard Fillmore took over California in as a free state= tipped power in Senate permanently to the North New Mexico & Utah- slavery decided by popular sovereignty (both unsuited for cotton) Slave trade outlawed in D.C. but not slavery itself New Fugitive Slave Act- “Bloodhound Bill” Mistake by the South!!


12 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Any African-American could be accused as a runaway slave to be taken into custody of the white person accusing him/her No trial Financial incentives ($10) for federal judges who found in favor of slave holders. Any northerner could be compelled to catch runaways or face jail or fines. What does compelled mean? For example there was a man who had been free for 19 years and was returned to slavery

13 Effects of the Act Northerners upset – possible jail time
Drove Northerners to acts of defiance (civil disobedience) Violence between abolitionists and pro- slavery advocates rose Abolitionists: Aided in the escape of slaves Sent anti-slavery mailings to the south Northerners could be jailed if they did not assist in the capture of slaves Meant to benefit southern slaveholders but hurt them by outraging northerners who were previously indifferent

14 Henry David Thoreau Romantic Author Wrote ‘Civil Disobedience’
People should break a law if it is unjust Anti-slavery activists used this essay to justify defying the Fugitive Slave Acts

15 The Underground Railroad
Escape routes for slaves Deepened Southern mistrust of Northerners Safe houses aided runaway slaves Began in the 1830s Members were ‘conductors’ Harriett Tubman – most famous conductor Called Moses for leading her people to freedom Used song to give directions Levi Coffin –white man provided a safe house 3 underground railroads converged at his house Levi was a Quaker born in NC but moved to Indiana

16 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book about slave life
Changed Northerner’s perceptions of slavery Sold millions of copies Southerners tried to ban the book Because she changed perceptions she turned more people against slavery Southerners said it was falsehoods and distortions of reality Some historians consider it a cause of the civil war

17 Frederick Douglass Former slave who escaped Powerful orator
Abolitionist Gave speeches to anti-slavery groups in the North Urged to enlist black troops

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