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I. Slavery and Cotton A. Slavery and cotton become important 1. Cotton gin 1796 2. Opening of rich farmland in Deep South 3. Demand from English textile.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Slavery and Cotton A. Slavery and cotton become important 1. Cotton gin 1796 2. Opening of rich farmland in Deep South 3. Demand from English textile."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Slavery and Cotton A. Slavery and cotton become important 1. Cotton gin Opening of rich farmland in Deep South 3. Demand from English textile mills 4. Forced migration of slaves from upper to lower South 5. By 1860 South provided 66% of world’s cotton, close to 60% of US exports A. Slavery and cotton become important 1. Cotton gin Opening of rich farmland in Deep South 3. Demand from English textile mills 4. Forced migration of slaves from upper to lower South 5. By 1860 South provided 66% of world’s cotton, close to 60% of US exports

2 I. Slavery and Cotton B. Antebellum slave ownership 1. Majority of whites did not own slaves 2. Slaves provided inferior class 3. Majority of slave owners << less than Few with large plantations dominated society 5. Cost of slave labor ^ ^ 1800>1860, but so did value as property B. Antebellum slave ownership 1. Majority of whites did not own slaves 2. Slaves provided inferior class 3. Majority of slave owners << less than Few with large plantations dominated society 5. Cost of slave labor ^ ^ 1800>1860, but so did value as property

3 I. Slavery and Cotton C. Conditions of slavery 1. Slaves’ experience varied greatly 2. Kinship networks, marriage important 3. Some free blacks lived in areas of South 4. Resistance: feigned illness, slow work, breaking tools, escape 5. Rebellions rare, Nat Turner’s in 1831 led to increasing restrictions C. Conditions of slavery 1. Slaves’ experience varied greatly 2. Kinship networks, marriage important 3. Some free blacks lived in areas of South 4. Resistance: feigned illness, slow work, breaking tools, escape 5. Rebellions rare, Nat Turner’s in 1831 led to increasing restrictions

4 I. Slavery and Cotton C. Abolitionism 1. Mostly from social reforms, 2nd Great Awakening of 1820s, 30s, 40s 2. Associated with women’s movement 3. Unpopular, even in North 4. Eventually whipped up a small but vocal group 5. Garrison, Douglass, Stowe (Cabin) C. Abolitionism 1. Mostly from social reforms, 2nd Great Awakening of 1820s, 30s, 40s 2. Associated with women’s movement 3. Unpopular, even in North 4. Eventually whipped up a small but vocal group 5. Garrison, Douglass, Stowe (Cabin)

5 II. Slavery and Expansion A. Missouri Compromise Drew dividing line 2. Most of Louisiana Purchase > free 3. Maintained Senate balance to Removed slavery as political issue until Mexican-American War 1846 A. Missouri Compromise Drew dividing line 2. Most of Louisiana Purchase > free 3. Maintained Senate balance to Removed slavery as political issue until Mexican-American War 1846

6 II. Slavery and Expansion B. Tariff of Abominations/Nullification American system - high tariff, internal improvements, National Bank 2. Southern politicians saw all as unconstitutional 3. High tariff led Calhoun,SC to invoke nullification, secession 4. Jackson raised troops B. Tariff of Abominations/Nullification American system - high tariff, internal improvements, National Bank 2. Southern politicians saw all as unconstitutional 3. High tariff led Calhoun,SC to invoke nullification, secession 4. Jackson raised troops

7 II. Slavery and Expansion C. Wilmot Proviso Proposed to prohibit slavery in any territory won from Mexico 2. Provokes outrage, calls for secession 3. Political issue of slavery returns 4. Missouri Compromise works for South 5. Secession proposed at Nashville Convention C. Wilmot Proviso Proposed to prohibit slavery in any territory won from Mexico 2. Provokes outrage, calls for secession 3. Political issue of slavery returns 4. Missouri Compromise works for South 5. Secession proposed at Nashville Convention

8 II. Slavery and Expansion D. Compromise of California admitted as free state 2. Senate balance gone 3. South got strong Fugitive Slave Law 4. Law obviously unfair and seemed to infringe on constitutional rights 5. Northerners increasingly refused to enforce D. Compromise of California admitted as free state 2. Senate balance gone 3. South got strong Fugitive Slave Law 4. Law obviously unfair and seemed to infringe on constitutional rights 5. Northerners increasingly refused to enforce

9 III. Slavery and Politics A. Ostend Manifesto Southern proposal to seize Cuba 2. Northerners outraged that South would risk war for political power A. Ostend Manifesto Southern proposal to seize Cuba 2. Northerners outraged that South would risk war for political power

10 III. Slavery and Politics B. Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas (IL) proposed popular sovereignty, used political power to push 2. Repealed Missouri Compromise 3. Republican Party created in response a. No new slave states b. National economy on old American system 4. Led to mini-war in Kansas B. Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas (IL) proposed popular sovereignty, used political power to push 2. Repealed Missouri Compromise 3. Republican Party created in response a. No new slave states b. National economy on old American system 4. Led to mini-war in Kansas

11 III. Slavery and Politics C. Dred Scott Blacks not citizens, had no rights 2. Congress had no authority to regulate slavery in any state or territory 3. Major issue in Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which gave Lincoln major exposure as serious candidate C. Dred Scott Blacks not citizens, had no rights 2. Congress had no authority to regulate slavery in any state or territory 3. Major issue in Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which gave Lincoln major exposure as serious candidate

12 III. Slavery and Politics D. Other Issues 1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin John Brown’s raid Election of Republican Lincoln in 1860 led to secession D. Other Issues 1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin John Brown’s raid Election of Republican Lincoln in 1860 led to secession

13 IV. Civil War A. Both sides had advantages 1. North a. Functioning government, two party system b. Industrial AND agricultural production c. National transportation system d. Control of Navy e. Population 2. South a. Cause & supportive population b. Cotton demand c. Defensive war on its own territory d. Military leaders, experienced soldiers A. Both sides had advantages 1. North a. Functioning government, two party system b. Industrial AND agricultural production c. National transportation system d. Control of Navy e. Population 2. South a. Cause & supportive population b. Cotton demand c. Defensive war on its own territory d. Military leaders, experienced soldiers

14 IV. Civil War B North slow to attack, poor tactical leaders (e.g. McClellan) 2. South’s superior generals able to outwit opposition 3. South generally won battles, but war stretched out 4. North holds onto border states (KY, MD) 5. Lincoln limits civil rights - increases power of presidency 6. Both sides draft, borrow, print money B North slow to attack, poor tactical leaders (e.g. McClellan) 2. South’s superior generals able to outwit opposition 3. South generally won battles, but war stretched out 4. North holds onto border states (KY, MD) 5. Lincoln limits civil rights - increases power of presidency 6. Both sides draft, borrow, print money

15 IV. Civil War C. Antietam Lincoln had drafted Emancipation Proclamation 2. Sought significant military victory to reinforce 3. Antietam not overwhelming, but first large “non- failure” for North 4. Decision a strategic one, at least partly to keep Britain out D. Emancipation Proclamation January 1863 A. Freed slaves only in areas out of Union control B. Enlistment of blacks, increased slave resistance C. Antietam Lincoln had drafted Emancipation Proclamation 2. Sought significant military victory to reinforce 3. Antietam not overwhelming, but first large “non- failure” for North 4. Decision a strategic one, at least partly to keep Britain out D. Emancipation Proclamation January 1863 A. Freed slaves only in areas out of Union control B. Enlistment of blacks, increased slave resistance

16 IV. Civil War E. Vicksburg July Split South along Mississippi (Anaconda) 2. Made Grant available to Lincoln 3. Gave North a base to move southeast to Atlanta F. Gettysburg July Lee invaded North, forced to fight in bad situation 2. Meade decimated Lee’s forces, Lee retreated 3. South’s “high water” mark, but Lincoln frustrated again E. Vicksburg July Split South along Mississippi (Anaconda) 2. Made Grant available to Lincoln 3. Gave North a base to move southeast to Atlanta F. Gettysburg July Lee invaded North, forced to fight in bad situation 2. Meade decimated Lee’s forces, Lee retreated 3. South’s “high water” mark, but Lincoln frustrated again

17 IV. Civil War G. Other Issues 1. British survived “cotton famine” 2. Northern blockade more and more effective 3. Southern military industrial program effective 4. Draft riots in North, bread riots in South 5. Southern states refused to cooperate with Richmond government 6. Lincoln barely wins reelection - Atlanta September 7. Northerners more supportive of war as time goes by, especially after Atlanta and other victories G. Other Issues 1. British survived “cotton famine” 2. Northern blockade more and more effective 3. Southern military industrial program effective 4. Draft riots in North, bread riots in South 5. Southern states refused to cooperate with Richmond government 6. Lincoln barely wins reelection - Atlanta September 7. Northerners more supportive of war as time goes by, especially after Atlanta and other victories

18 IV. Civil War H Grant follows Lee through Virginia 2. Long, dug-in battles with high casualties, especially Grant 3. Sherman’s March to Sea in late 1864, then moves North 4. Worn out Lee surrenders April 9 at Appomattox Courthouse 5. Grant gracious in victory - criticized H Grant follows Lee through Virginia 2. Long, dug-in battles with high casualties, especially Grant 3. Sherman’s March to Sea in late 1864, then moves North 4. Worn out Lee surrenders April 9 at Appomattox Courthouse 5. Grant gracious in victory - criticized

19 IV. Civil War I. Wartime Legislation 1. Two companies chartered to finish transcontinental railroad 2. Generous land and loan subsidies to RR 3. National banking system and currency 4. Tariffs raised 5. Homestead Act to encourage settlement 6. Northern industrial economy with government support victorious over South’s agricultural system I. Wartime Legislation 1. Two companies chartered to finish transcontinental railroad 2. Generous land and loan subsidies to RR 3. National banking system and currency 4. Tariffs raised 5. Homestead Act to encourage settlement 6. Northern industrial economy with government support victorious over South’s agricultural system

20 V. Civil War Historiography A. Did slavery cause the war? 1. James Loewen “Confederate Reader” - yes 2. Charles Beard - no, economic interests in North 3. Since 60s historians generally say yes 4. Neo-Confederates not generally considered scholarly B. Lincoln 1. Really anti-slavery or for equal rights? 2. Political decisions - dictator, savior of Union, or political opportunist? A. Did slavery cause the war? 1. James Loewen “Confederate Reader” - yes 2. Charles Beard - no, economic interests in North 3. Since 60s historians generally say yes 4. Neo-Confederates not generally considered scholarly B. Lincoln 1. Really anti-slavery or for equal rights? 2. Political decisions - dictator, savior of Union, or political opportunist?

21 V. Civil War Historiography C. Military leadership 1. North probably not as bad as usually stated 2. South not as uniformly good as stated 3. Lincoln judged on results, Davis judge on “pedigree” D. Was northern economic system less cruel, more open to advancement than southern? C. Military leadership 1. North probably not as bad as usually stated 2. South not as uniformly good as stated 3. Lincoln judged on results, Davis judge on “pedigree” D. Was northern economic system less cruel, more open to advancement than southern?

22 VI. Reconstruction A. Power struggle - Radical Republicans v. Confederates 1. 3 periods - Johnson, Congress, Redeemers 2. End of slavery non-negotiable - 13th Amendment 3. Freedmen? - 14th & 15th Amendments 4. Military occupation 5. Southern Republican govts. include blacks 6. Redeemers, white supremacist groups (KKK) eliminate Repubs and blacks from govts 7. Jim Crow system reinforced by courts - Plessy v. Ferguson and other decisions 8. Jim Crow a political, social and economic system A. Power struggle - Radical Republicans v. Confederates 1. 3 periods - Johnson, Congress, Redeemers 2. End of slavery non-negotiable - 13th Amendment 3. Freedmen? - 14th & 15th Amendments 4. Military occupation 5. Southern Republican govts. include blacks 6. Redeemers, white supremacist groups (KKK) eliminate Repubs and blacks from govts 7. Jim Crow system reinforced by courts - Plessy v. Ferguson and other decisions 8. Jim Crow a political, social and economic system


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