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The Union in Peril. The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1.Secession: formal withdrawal from Union 2.Popular Sovereignty: right to vote for or against slavery.

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Presentation on theme: "The Union in Peril. The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1.Secession: formal withdrawal from Union 2.Popular Sovereignty: right to vote for or against slavery."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Union in Peril

2 The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1.Secession: formal withdrawal from Union 2.Popular Sovereignty: right to vote for or against slavery 3.Underground railroad: secret network to freedom 4.Harriet Tubman: conductor on Underground Railroad 5.Harriet Beecher Stowe: Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin 6.Dred Scott: Case for freedom went to Supreme Court 7.Confederacy: Secession states formed new Gov’t 8.Jefferson Davis: President of Confederacy

3 Differences between North and South Geography and climate – North: cold winters, rocky soil, rivers that are difficult to navigate, manufacturing develops – South: Mild winters, fertile soil, navigable rivers, plantation farming develops

4 Slavery in Territories California wants to enter as free state but lies mostly below Missouri Compromise line Compromise of 1850: – California to be a free state – Strict fugitive slave law – New Mexico and Utah territories to decide on slavery through popular sovereignty

5 Protest, Resistance, Violence Northerners and slaves resisted fugitive slave act Underground Railroad Uncle Tom’s Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act for new railroad leads to violence in Kansas

6 New Political Parties emerge Whigs break up into 3 major parties – American or Know Nothings: favored nativism – Free Soilers wanted to prevent slavery from spreading into new territories – Republicans: opposed the spread of slavery

7 Conflict leads to secession Dred Scott Case Lincoln-Douglas debates Attack on Harper’s Ferry Lincoln elected President in 1860 Slave states secede in fear that Lincoln will abolish slavery Confederacy is formed

8 The Civil War Begins 1.Bull Run: 1 st battle of the Civil War/war to drag on 2.Ulysses S. Grant: led Union forces 3.Robert E. Lee: led Confederate forces 4.Emancipation Proclamation: freed slaves in rebelling states 5.Conscription: draft to force men to serve in army 6.Clara Barton: nurse, created Red Cross 7.Income Tax: Tax on Personal income to fund war

9 Union and Confederate forces Clash Strengths of North: factories, railroads Strengths of South: King Cotton, better military leaders Northern strategies: Blockade Southern ports and control Mississippi River Southern strategies: defend way of life Battle of Bull Run McClellan appointed leader of Union forces Ulysses S. Grant led forces in West Robert E Lee leads Confederate forces Antietam

10 Politics of War South gets no aid from Britain Emancipation Proclamation

11 Life During Wartime African Americans face discrimination in Union Army Women served as nurses, spies, or just held down the home front

12 The North Takes Charge 1.Gettysburg: decisive battle of the war 2.Gettysburg address: speech by President Lincoln 3.Vicksburg: Union victory on Mississippi 4.William T. Sherman: Commander of Union troops in Georgia and South Carolina 5.Appomattox Court House: Site of Confederate surrender 6.13 th Amendment: Abolished slavery in U. S. 7.John Wilkes Booth: Assassin of President Lincoln

13 The Tide Turns The South wins battles in 1863, but famous general, Stonewall Jackson dies Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania forces Lee to retreat Gettysburg Address honors dead General Grant captures Vicksburg allowing the Union to control Mississippi River

14 Confederacy Wears Down Confederate morale was low and they were low on supplies Grant becomes commander of Union forces and Sherman controls forces in Mississippi Sherman’s army invades Georgia, marches across state and destroys cities and farms Helped Lincoln win 2 nd term Union Conquers Richmond, VA in April 1865 General Lee surrenders to Grant but terms were generous

15 War Changes the Nation 360,000 Union Soldiers and 260,000 Confederate soldiers died Southern economy collapsed New deadly technology developed for war

16 War Changes Lives Slavery abolished Lincoln assassinated

17 Reconstruction and its effects 1.Freedmen’s Bureau: Agency of Congress to help former slaves 2.Reconstruction: rebuilding nation after the Civil War 3.Radicals: Republicans who wanted to destroy political power of former slaveholders 4.Andrew Johnson: President after Lincoln’s assassination 5.14 th amendment: guaranteed citizenship for African Americans 6.15 th amendment: guaranteed voting rights for African Americans

18 7.scalawag: white southerners who joined the Republican party 8.Carpetbagger: Northerners who moved south after war 9.Hiram Revels: 1 st African American senator 10.Sharecropping: farm owners gave land to farm workers in return for portion of crops 11.Ku Klux Klan: secret group who tried to overthrow Republican rule in South

19 Politics of Reconstruction Freedmen’s Bureau helped former slaves Government has to plan to reunite the nation through Reconstruction Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plan too lenient on Southerners Radical Republicans wanted to punish Southern leaders States had to ratify 14 th and 15 th amendments to reenter union South under martial law

20 Reconstructing Society All former states back in Union by 1870 Terrible economic conditions, high taxes Many former slaves moved to cities or farmed their own land

21 Collapse of Reconstruction KKK: used violence to keep former slaves and Scalawags from voting Division in Republican Army Panic of 1873 End of Reconstruction – Southern Democrats agree to accept Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as President if federal troops withdraw from South


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