Presentation on theme: "DO NOW – PAGE 106 DO NOW!!! Color your map – 1 color for free states / territories 1 color for slave states/territories Draw and label the Missouri."— Presentation transcript:
DO NOW – PAGE 106 DO NOW!!! Color your map – 1 color for free states / territories 1 color for slave states/territories Draw and label the Missouri Compromise Line COLOR PENCILS AND MARKERS ARE IN THE BACK OF THE ROOM!!!
Cultural Differences NorthSouth Increasingly Urban – people migrated from farms to cities for economic opportunities. Economy, workshops, factories, and mills produced large amounts of manufactured goods. 20,000 miles of rail lines that connected the cities and factories of the Northeast with farming regions of the Midwest. Most Immigrants would settle in the North. Still predominantly rural; most population lived on small farms or large plantations. Economy had little industry; economy was based on exports of agricultural exports (rice, corn, and cotton). Invested much less in transportation and had only half as many rail lines. Relied on rivers for transportation.
Compromises Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state. Maine would enter the Union as a free state. Drew a line across the Louisiana Territory at 36/30. North of that line slavery would be banned. South of the line slavery would be permitted. Compromise of 1850 Admitted California into the Union as a free state. Divided the rest of the Southwest into two territories. New Mexico and Utah Opened both to slavery. Ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C. but allowed existing slaveholders to keep their slaves. Fugitive Slave Law – required the return of escaped slaves to their owners.
Bleeding Kansas Congress introduced a bill to organize the Great Plains for settlement. Kansas and Nebraska were organized on the basis of popular sovereignty. Popular Sovereignty - rule by the people; voters in the territories would decide whether to permit slavery. Each side would send in agitators to fight for their cause.
Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott and his wife were slaves however they lived for several years in the free territory of Wisconsin with their owner. The Scotts argued that since they lived in a free territory they should be free citizens. Scott v Sandford made the Court face two questions; 1) Did slaves have the right to bring a case before a federal court? And 2) Did the Scott’s stay in Wisconsin make them free? The court ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen of Missouri based on their Constitution and is not entitled to sue in Court. Scott was property of his owner which is protected by the Fifth Amendment (protection of private property). Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional by establishing territories which prohibited a citizen from holding or owning property.
Election of 1860 Abe Lincoln was part of the new Republican Party that took a firm stand against the Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas – Nebraska Act. Had an easy path to victory when the democrats would split the ticket based on Northern / Southern factions. Abe won the presidency with less than 40 percent of the vote; his name would not appear on the ballot in many Southern States. Tried to Calm the South stating he would not interfere with slavery in the South and he would support the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law. He would refuse to support the extension of slavery to the western territories.
Advantages of the Union and the Confederacy UnionConfederacy Superior Resources Twice as many citizens Diverse economy More farm production and factories. Naval forces Railroad lines for moving troops and supplies. Fighting a defensive war on their own soil. Outstanding military Leadership
Anaconda Plan Union would set up a Naval Blockade stopping sea traffic in and out of Southern ports. Union Navy would take control of the Mississippi River (separating Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas) Union Army would move east to squeeze the life out of the Deep South. Union forces would invade Virginia and capture the Confederate capital of Richmond.
Challenges Facing the Leaders Lincoln’s Challenges Davis’ Challenges Suspended Habeas Corpus in Maryland Lacking sufficient volunteers Congress enacted a military draft. For $300 a man who did not want to serve could buy his way out or he could hire a replacement to serve. Passed a draft law Rich plantation owners could avoid military service. How to pay for the war while not tanking the Southern economy. Inflation skyrocketed.
New Weapons / Techniques Rifled Musket Improved Cannons with explosive shells Poor military tactics. Medical care
Emancipation Proclamation Declared all slaves living in states “in rebellion against the United States” to be forever free. Slaves living in areas loyal to or under Union control were not affected.