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Lone Star: The Story of Texas Chapter 12 The Civil War and Reconstruction: 1861 - 1876 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice.

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Presentation on theme: "Lone Star: The Story of Texas Chapter 12 The Civil War and Reconstruction: 1861 - 1876 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Chapter 12 The Civil War and Reconstruction: Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Section 1: Causes of the Civil War Section 2: The Civil War and Texas Section 3: Life on the Home Front Section 4: Reconstruction in Texas Chapter 12: The Civil War and Reconstruction: Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

3 Causes of the Civil War Why did slavery take root in Texas? What issues began to split the nation apart? How did Texas make the decision to secede from the United States? Chapter 12, Section 1

4 Slavery in Texas Slavery in Early Texas - Many settlers brought slaves with them to Texas. Slaves were a cheap source of labor to work the cotton fields. Under the law, slaves were considered property. Some slaves escaped to Mexico, where slavery was illegal. Most Northerners opposed slavery. In the South, many people feared that the loss of slavery would bankrupt the South. They threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union if slavery was outlawed. Abolitionists were people who wanted to end slavery. Vigilantes are people who take the law into their own hands. Chapter 12, Section 1

5 The Growing Slave Population in Texas, 1825–1860 Chapter 12, Section 1

6 The Nation Splits Apart Kansas-Nebraska Act of This act gave the people of Kansas and Nebraska the right to decide if their states would allow slavery. Many Southerners favored this act, most Northerners did not. States’ rights - the idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government. Most Southerners believed that the federal government went beyond its power by limiting the spread of slavery. Dred Scott - This landmark Supreme Court case ruled that African Americans did not have the rights of citizens. This ruling prevented the U.S. Congress from outlawing slavery in the territories Chapter 12, Section 1

7 Texas Secedes The Secession Convention - Oran M. Roberts, chief justice of the Texas Supreme Court, called a convention to discuss Texas leaving the Union. The delegates voted 166 to 8 to secede. On February 23, 1861, the people of Texas voted to secede. Texas Joins the Confederacy - Soon after the vote, Texas delegates helped to establish the Confederate States of America. On March 5, 1861, the Secession Convention declared Texas independent of the United States. Chapter 12, Section 1

8 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 1 Causes of the Civil War - Assessment Why did most Southerners support states’ rights? (A) They wanted the right to regulate the sale of cotton. (B) They wanted each state to have its own system of government. (C) They did not believe in paying federal taxes. (D) They felt that individual states should decide the issue of slavery. Abolitionists wanted to end _________ (A) vigilante justice. (B) slavery. (C) states’ rights. (D) the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

9 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 1 Causes of the Civil War - Assessment Why did most Southerners support states’ rights? (A) They wanted the right to regulate the sale of cotton. (B) They wanted each state to have its own system of government. (C) They did not believe in paying federal taxes. (D) They felt that individual states should decide the issue of slavery. Abolitionists wanted to end _________ (A) vigilante justice. (B) slavery. (C) states’ rights. (D) the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

10 The Civil War and Texas How did Texas contribute to the war effort? Which Civil War battles were fought in Texas? Chapter 12, Section 2

11 The War Begins The United States government declared that it was illegal for Texas to secede. Southerners argued that they freely joined the Union, and they could freely leave it. Confederate states took control of federal forts, navy yards, and arsenals (storehouses for weapons). Confederates captured all federal property in Texas. Union troops were forced out of the state. On April 12, 1861, Confederates fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina. This was the start of the Civil War. Chapter 12, Section 2

12 The South’s Disadvantage The South had 1 million men of fighting age. The North had 4 million. The South had to import most of its war supplies. The North could manufacture and transport all the supplies it needed. Texans in the Union Army More than 2,000 Anglo Texans and 47 African Americans from Texas served in the Union Army. Tejanos and Mexican citizens made up the federal Second Texas Cavalry.

13 Texans Battle West of the Mississippi River Battle The Battle of Galveston The Battle of Sabine Pass The Red River Campaign The Battle of Laredo Texas broke through the Union blockade and regained control of the port of Galveston. Texans forced Union attackers to retreat and captured 300 Union soldiers. Colonel Santos Benavides and his Tejano troops drove off Union soldiers who were planning to attack Laredo and burn its store of cotton. Confederate forces, under Richard Taylor, defeated Union forces that were trying to invade Texas. Outcome Chapter 12, Section 2

14 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 2 The Civil War and Texas - Assessment Why did the Union blockade Texas ports? (A) To keep soldiers from escaping by water (B) To prevent weapons and supplies from being delivered (C) To keep cotton from being shipped out of state (D) To prevent Texan soldiers from leaving Texas What major advantage did the North have over the South at the beginning of the Civil War? (A) More men of fighting age (B) More patriotism (C) More dedicated soldiers (D) More assistance from other nations

15 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 2 The Civil War and Texas - Assessment Why did the Union blockade Texas ports? (A) To keep soldiers from escaping by water (B) To prevent weapons and supplies from being delivered (C) To keep cotton from being shipped out of state (D) To prevent Texan soldiers from leaving Texas What major advantage did the North have over the South at the beginning of the Civil War? (A) More men of fighting age (B) More patriotism (C) More dedicated soldiers (D) More assistance from other nations

16 Chapter 12, Section 3 Life on the Home Front How did the economy of Texas change during the war? What shortages did Texans face during the war? What hardships did Unionists face in Texas? What brought the Civil War to an end?

17 Chapter 12, Section 3 The Wartime Economy Wartime brought new hardships to many Texans. Most suffered from shortages of manufactured goods and other supplies. Blockade runners were ships that slipped past Union blockades to bring manufactured goods to Texas. In Texas, women worked together to make uniforms for the troops. In 1862 the Confederate Quartermaster’s Clothing Bureau began providing food and supplies for the army. Inmates at Huntsville prison manufactured cloth for the uniforms. Instead of cotton,Texas farmers grew corn and wheat, and supplied beef and bacon to the army.

18 Hard Times and Shortages Texans made many sacrifices for the war effort. Farmers donated grain. Women gave up their jewelry, so troops could purchase supplies. Local committees collected food, clothing, and money for the war effort. The blockade forced Texans to go without coffee, sugar, paper, and other items. Chapter 12, Section 3

19 Unionists Unionists -Texans who remained loyal to the Union The Great Hanging - Many who sided with the Union lived in the Gainesville area. State troops from North Texas rounded up 150 able-bodied men who resisted the draft and charged them with treason. Some 40 of them were hanged. Most Germans in the Fredericksburg and San Antonio areas remained neutral. Confederates suspected that these Germans supported the Union. Confederate troops attacked an armed group of 65 German men and boys. They killed many Germans in a clash known as the Battle of the Nueces or the Nueces Massacre. Chapter 12, Section 3

20 The War Ends Surrender at Appomattox Union General Ulysses S. Grant trapped Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Petersburg, Virginia. Union General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia. Grant accepted Lee’s surrender at the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 Battle at Palmito Ranch Some Texas Confederates refused to give up the war. On May 12, 1865, Union Colonel Theodore H. Barrett attacked Confederate forces at Palmito Ranch. The Confederates counterattacked, forcing Barrett to retreat. Despite this victory, the Texas Confederates received orders to disband their armies.

21 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 3 Life on the Home Front - Assessment Who died in the “Great Hanging”? (A) Inmates at the prison in Huntsville (B) Blockade runners (C) Germans from San Antonio (D) Unionists from the Gainesville area During the Civil War, what were Texans forced to sacrifice? (A) summer vacations (B) wool (C) cattle (D) sugar

22 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 3 Life on the Home Front - Assessment Who died in the “Great Hanging”? (A) Inmates at the prison in Huntsville (B) Blockade runners (C) Germans from San Antonio (D) Unionists from the Gainesville area During the Civil War, what were Texans forced to sacrifice? (A) summer vacations (B) wool (C) cattle (D) sugar

23 Reconstruction in Texas What did Texas have to do to rejoin the Union? How were African Americans’ rights limited and protected during Reconstruction? How did the U.S. Congress change the course of Reconstruction? How did Reconstruction change Texas? Chapter 12, Section 4

24 Reconstruction Begins Reconstruction - the federal government’s plan to restore the South to the Union after the Civil War. Johnson’s Plan- Under President Johnson’s plan, all Confederate states would have to meet some conditions before reentering the Union: End slavery Set up temporary governments Declare secession illegal Require all adult white males to take an oath of loyalty to the U.S. Andrew J. Hamilton, provisional governor of Texas, called the Constitutional Convention of Delegates accepted most of Johnson’s terms. In June of 1866, Texans accepted the new constitution and elected James Throckmorton as governor. Chapter 12, Section 4

25 The Struggle for African American Rights Black Codes Texas legislators made new laws to control African Americans. These codes limited the rights of African Americans and prevented them from serving on juries or holding public office. African Americans faced arrest if they were not working. The Freedman’s Bureau In 1865, the federal government established the Freedmen’s Bureau. It was supposed to protect African Americans from violence and black codes. Some white Texans resented the bureau. Some bureau officials were attacked and killed.

26 Chapter 12, Section 4 The Congressional Plan for Reconstruction Republicans felt that Reconstruction was too lenient on the South. They did not like having Confederate leaders voted into high office. They resented the fact that Texas did not ratify two constitutional amendments: Thirteenth Amendment - banned slavery Fourteenth Amendment - made all African Americans citizens In response, Congress placed the South under control of the army. The army supervised Texas until it passed a new constitution that gave African Americans the right to vote and hold office. Many white Texans resented Congress’s actions. Secret societies, such as the Ku Klux Klan, formed to frighten African American voters away from the polls.

27 Chapter 12, Section 4 The Convention of 1868 Texans elected delegates to create a new state constitution. The convention split into two main groups: Radical Republicans wanted radical, or major, changes. Moderate Republicans wanted moderate, or less extreme, changes. Under the new constitution, African Americans and former Confederates gained the right to vote. The governor had the power to appoint judges and other officials. The new constitution required all children to go to school. Voters approved this constitution in In 1870, Texas was readmitted into the Union.

28 The End of Reconstruction Economic Changes Cotton, wheat and corn production increased, due to the expansion of the railroad. Texans developed more industries, producing textiles, iron, and other goods. New Labor System The sharecropper system replaced the system of slave labor after the civil war. Landowners assumed all the housing and production costs in exchange for the sharecropper working the land. Sharecroppers gave half the value of their crop to the landowner. Chapter 12, Section 4

29 The End of Reconstruction The Constitution of 1876 Cut the governor’s power to appoint officers Limited elected leaders to two-year terms Gave all males, including African Americans, the right to vote Required that voters approve any changes to the constitution Remains the basic law of Texas to this day Chapter 12, Section 4

30 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 4 Reconstruction in Texas - Assessment What was the purpose of the black codes? (A) To regulate groups like the Ku Klux Klan (B) To keep scalawags out of public office (C) To help African Americans gain more rights (D) To limit the rights of African Americans Who were carpetbaggers? (A) Sharecroppers who worked their way across Texas (B) Men from the North who won public office in Texas (C) Bankers who bought land cheaply after the Civil War (D) Free African Americans who worked for room and board

31 Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 12, Section 4 Reconstruction in Texas - Assessment What was the purpose of the black codes? (A) To regulate groups like the Ku Klux Klan (B) To keep scalawags out of public office (C) To help African Americans gain more rights (D) To limit the rights of African Americans Who were carpetbaggers? (A) Sharecroppers who worked their way across Texas (B) Men from the North who won public office in Texas (C) Bankers who bought land cheaply after the Civil War (D) Free African Americans who worked for room and board


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