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The Civil War Chapter 14 A Divided Nation North n Slavery –Many abolitionists wanted to end slavery n Tariff –Supported a higher tariff n States’ Rights.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Chapter 14 A Divided Nation North n Slavery –Many abolitionists wanted to end slavery n Tariff –Supported a higher tariff n States’ Rights."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Civil War Chapter 14

3 A Divided Nation North n Slavery –Many abolitionists wanted to end slavery n Tariff –Supported a higher tariff n States’ Rights –Believed federal laws applied to all states n Secession –Believed states could not legally leave the Union South n Slavery –Important part of their economy n Tariff –Supported foreign trade and opposed the tariff n States’ Rights –Believed states should have the right to decide on the issue of slavery themselves n Secession –Believed states had the right to vote to leave Union

4 The Democratic Party n States’ Rights to decide about slavery n States’ Rights to leave the Union if citizens vote (secede) –Most supporters were Southerners

5 The Republican Party n Stop the western spread of slavery n Economic changes like a higher tariff –Most supporters were Northerners

6 Presidential Election of 1860 n Democratic Party (split over slavery) 1.Stephen A Douglas was selected by the Northern Democrats 2.John C Breckinridge was selected by the Southern Democrats n Constitutional Union Party –Only goal was to keep the Union together 3.John Bell n Republican Party 4.Abraham Lincoln won the election and became the 16th president of the United States

7 Reaction to Lincoln’s Election n Southern States had threatened to secede if a Republican won the election of 1860 –After the election South Carolina seceded from the Union –Five other states followed (Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana) –They formed their own country The Confederate States of American or Confederacy

8 Reaction to Lincoln’s Election in Texas n Texans called a convention a voted 166 to 8 secede n Governor Sam Houston wanted to keep Texas from seceding –He refused to take an oath to the Confederacy and he was removed from office –He was replaced with Francis R Lubbock who was the 1st Confederate Governor of Texas –He Died July 26, 1863 in Huntsville n On March 2, 1861 Texas became the 7th state to secede

9 The Confederacy n Jefferson Davis –President of the 11 Confederate States of America n Everyone had to make a choice of what side to be on n Major General David E Twiggs commander of all US forces in Texas chose the Confederate side and surrendered his command peacefully in San Antonio

10 The War Begins n Fort Sumter, South Carolina (Southern State) –Union troops refused to surrender –On April 12, 1861 Confederate troops fired on the fort n This is the official beginning of the Civil War

11 Texans in the War n 60,000 to 70,000 Texans fought for the Confederacy n The most famous units were: –Hood’s Texas Brigade –Terry’s Texas Rangers –Ross’s Brigade n Texas was know as the “storehouse of the Confederacy” –Goods were brought into and out of Texas by sea and through Mexico –Supplies like weapons, food, and horses were then shipped to the rest of the South

12 Texas Battles of the Civil War n No Major Battles of the War took place in Texas –Most fighting centered on keeping the Gulf ports open –This was difficult because of the Union blockade 1. Battle of Glorieta Pass (1862) Texans tried to take over New Mexico Supplies ran low and they were defeated by Union forces New Mexico remained part of the Union the rest of the war

13 Texas Battles of the Civil War 2. Battle of Galveston (1863) Union troops had captured Galveston (important port) to cut off Confederate supplies Jan 1, 1863, John B Magruder using “cottonclads”, recapture it for the Confederacy 3. Battle of Sabine Pass (1863) 47 Texans led by Richard Dowling defeated a much larger Union force Captured 2 gunboats and 350 Union soldiers and prevented invasion of Texas Received only medals of honor ever awarded by the Confederacy

14 Texas Battles of the Civil War 4. Battle of Mansfield (1864) Union tried to invade Texas from the East following the Red River Large Union invasion force was attacked and defeated at Mansfield, Louisiana 5. Battle of Palmito Ranch (1865) Last battle of the Civil War Confederacy won, but lost the war

15 The Effect of the War on the Texas Home Front 1. Men went off to fight so more work for those left behind Women managed farms and plantations, drove cattle, and worked in factories Slaves were brought to Texas (less fighting here) to keep them from escaping or being captured by Union troops 2. Blockade reduced the sale of cotton Many farmers switched to growing food crops to supply the troops + =  3. Blockade cause shortages of basic supplies Clothing, newspaper, coffee, and sugar Prices rose dramatically

16 The Effect of the War on the Texas Home Front 4. Tensions rose between supporters of the Confederacy and the Union Union supporters in North Texas formed a secret society called the Peace Party Vigilantes hung 40 Peace Party members in Gainesville in 1862 People in Central Texas, mostly German immigrants, supported the Union 60 Germans tried to leave Texas to join the Union army They were ambushed at the Nueces River, some died fighting and the rest were executed

17 The End of the War n On April 9, 1865 Confederate General Robert E Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia n This ended the Civil War


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