2Issues that Divide the Country For years (1850s), the North and South disagreed on issues such as tariffs; distribution of public lands; states’ rights and above all slavery.
3Issues that Divide the Country Abolitionists wanted to end slavery. Not all of the Northern whites shared this view and many were prejudice to African Americans: both free and enslaved. Most did not want slavery to spread to new territories.
5Republican Party vs. Southern Democrats Northerners who were against slavery joined the Republican Party. They also believed that the Southern Democrats were responsible for the economic depression of the late 1850s. The Republican Party thought that prosperity could be brought back by a high tariff, a homestead act, and internal improvement.
6Republican Party vs. Southern Democrats Southerners were against the Republican Party because they thought it would end slavery and their way of life.
7Southern States Vow to Secede During the 1860 presidential campaign, Southern leaders threatened to secede from the Union if a Republican won the election. They said that sovereign states had entered the Union voluntarily, and they should leave it voluntarily.
8Southern States Vow to Secede The Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, six states (South Carolina, Miss., Fl., Ala., Geo., and Lou.) withdrew from the Union.
20Texans Become Soldiers Thousands of Texans joined the army. When there was a shortage of soldiers, the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act. This forced enrollment of people into military service between the ages of 18 to 35. Later this number was 17 to 50.
21Texans Become Soldiers About 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy
22Texans Become Soldiers Those Texans who were Unionists, meaning favored the Union, left Texas. Some that tried to leave were killed. If they stayed, they ran the risk of being executed.
23Comparison of Union and CSA Total population 22,000,000 (71%) 9,000,000 (29%)Free population21,567,4145,500,0001860 Border state slaves432,586NA1860 Southern slaves3,500,000Soldiers2,200,000 (67%)1,064,000 (33%)Railroad miles21,788 (71%)8,838 (29%)Manufactured items90%10%Firearm production97%3%Bales of cotton in 1860Negligible4,500,000Bales of cotton in 1864300,000Pre-war U.S. exports30%70%
26Galveston and Brownville Union ships created a blockade around Texas ports to prevent supplies from getting in or out. Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe for war materials.
27Galveston and Brownville The Union forces took Galveston because it was so weakly defended since all guns had been removed. The Confederates new how important this port was and retook Galveston.
28Galveston and Brownville The Union also took Brownsville to try to block the trade of cotton through Mexico. The Confederates retook Brownville much like Galveston.
29Other BattlesIn 1863, the Union tried to invade Texas. The Confederates defeated them at the Battle of Sabine. This battle was important because it ended the North’s campaign to invade Texas.The Confederates also defeated the Union in Louisiana, near the Texas border.
31The EconomyFarmers and factories made things for the war causing shortages in Texas. This caused women to pick up the slack and do jobs that men had done in the past.
32The EconomyPrices on goods increased because goods were scarce due to the blockade.
33The Civil War EndsIn April of 1865, the South surrendered to the more powerful North. The North had more soldiers, more money, and more factories.
34Civil War Graphs by Wayne by Darrielle by George
35The Civil War EndsGeneral Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia.
36The Civil War EndsThe last battle of the Civil War took place in May 1865, at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville. The Confederate forces defeated the Union forces. The Confederate soldiers then learned that Lee had surrendered a month earlier and the war was over.
37The Civil War EndsNearly 600,000 Northerners and Southerners died.
38The Civil War EndsThe North’s victory meant the Union was preserved and an end to slavery. President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all the slaves in confederate states. (13th Amendment abolished slavery and was ratified in late 1865)
39The Civil War EndsPresident Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth five days after Lee’s surrender.
40The Civil War EndsTexas government officials fled to Mexico leaving Texas lawless for some weeks. Eventually, President Andrew Johnson put in a provisional governor. Now Texas faced the problem of rejoining the Union.