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Basic Fire & Life Safety for Radiation Safety Professionals Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment,

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Fire & Life Safety for Radiation Safety Professionals Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Fire & Life Safety for Radiation Safety Professionals Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment, Risk Management & Quality Assurance The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Associate Professor of Occupational Health The University of Texas School of Public Health

2 Slide 2 Why do we need fire and life safety codes? According to the NFPA, in 2007 there were… 530,500 structure fires – one every minute 530,500 structure fires – one every minute 3,000 civilian deaths – one every 2.5 hours 3,000 civilian deaths – one every 2.5 hours 15,350 civilian injuries – one every 30 minutes 15,350 civilian injuries – one every 30 minutes $10,600,000,000 in property damage $10,600,000,000 in property damage A fire department responded to a fire every 20 seconds A fire department responded to a fire every 20 seconds

3 Slide 3 Objectives Objectives Introduce the codes that drive fire and life safety compliance Introduce the codes that drive fire and life safety compliance Overview of fire detection and suppression Overview of fire detection and suppression Provide tools to conduct a basic fire and life safety assessment Provide tools to conduct a basic fire and life safety assessment

4 Slide 4 Fire Regulations and Codes Safety and Health Regulations Safety and Health Regulations –OSHA (29 CFR 1910 & 1926) Fire and Life Safety Codes Fire and Life Safety Codes –International Building Code (IBC) –National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) –Municipal Requirements

5 Slide 5 Additional Requirements All codes are minimum requirements All codes are minimum requirements Insurance company requirements Insurance company requirements Company policies Company policies The Joint Commission The Joint Commission State and/or City requirements State and/or City requirements

6 Slide 6 How are These Codes Enforced Codes are adopted by reference by ordinance. Codes are adopted by reference by ordinance. Plans for remodeling or a new construction must be approved by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to starting work. Plans for remodeling or a new construction must be approved by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to starting work. –State Fire Marshal’s Office –Local Fire Department or City Code Officials –Designated Local AHJ Take Home Message – Know what code(s) apply to your operation Take Home Message – Know what code(s) apply to your operation

7 Slide 7 Which do I follow? Remodeling or new construction plans must be approved by authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to starting work Remodeling or new construction plans must be approved by authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to starting work –State Fire Marshal’s Office –Local Fire Department or City Code Officials –Designated Local AHJ

8 Slide 8 Features of Building Fire and Life Safety Alarms Alarms Sprinklers Sprinklers Rated Corridors Rated Corridors Exit Access Exit Access Number of Required Exits Number of Required Exits Egress Widths Egress Widths Occupant Loads Occupant Loads Elevator Recall Elevator Recall Fire Rated Doors & Frames Fire Rated Doors & Frames Smoke Control Smoke Control Rated Stairwells Rated Stairwells Fireproofing Requirements Fireproofing Requirements Electrical Safety Electrical Safety Construction Combustibility Construction Combustibility Fire and Smoke Dampers Fire and Smoke Dampers Emergency Power Emergency Power Roof Assemblies Roof Assemblies

9 Slide 9 Fire Alarm Systems Play an Essential Role in Protecting Property and Lives From Fire. Play an Essential Role in Protecting Property and Lives From Fire. Protection Goals Governs System Selection Protection Goals Governs System Selection –Building Occupant Safety –Satisfy Building Codes or AHJ Requirements –Property Protection –First Responder Safety –Environmental Protection –Combination

10 Slide 10 Fire Alarm Systems IBC references NFPA 72 for installation and maintenance IBC references NFPA 72 for installation and maintenance NFPA 72 – National Fire Alarm Code NFPA 72 – National Fire Alarm Code Basic Components Basic Components –Panel –Detection –Manual Alarm –Notification –Off-Premises Connection for Supervision

11 Slide 11 Fire Alarm Systems Fire Alarm System Will Provide Three Types of Signals Fire Alarm System Will Provide Three Types of Signals –Alarm –Trouble – indicates a fault in a monitoring circuit or component of the fire alarm system  Bad smoke detector  Ground fault –Supervisory – indicates a problem with other fire protection systems being monitored by the fire alarm system  Water valve to sprinkler system closed  Clean agent system problem Alarm Supervisory Trouble

12 Slide 12 Off-Premises Connection for Supervision

13 Slide 13 Common Fire Detection Smoke Detector Smoke Detector  Ionization  Photoelectric Heat Detectors Heat Detectors  Fixed Temperature  Rate-of-Rise

14 Slide 14 Manual Pull Stations Manual pull devices will be located on the wall Manual pull devices will be located on the wall Activated by pulling on a handle Activated by pulling on a handle Sends signal to building’s fire alarm system which places the building into alarm Sends signal to building’s fire alarm system which places the building into alarm

15 Slide 15 Notification Appliances Audible alarms (How loud is loud enough?) Audible alarms (How loud is loud enough?) –Public – SPL must be 5 dB above any ambient noise that lasts 60 sec. or more, or 15 dB above the 24-hr average, whichever is greater –Sleeping quarters – Minimum of 75 dBA

16 Slide 16 Notification Appliances Voice Communication Voice Communication –Better to have a larger number of lower SPL units vs. a few very loud units –Intelligibility can be a problem

17 Slide 17 Notification Appliances Visual alarms Visual alarms –Primarily intended to augment audible alarms Common Locations of Visual Alarms Common Locations of Visual Alarms –Corridors –Meeting rooms –Restrooms –Enclosed elevator lobbies

18 Slide 18 Fire Alarm System Interfaces Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning –Duct detectors –AHU shut-down Sprinkler water flow alarms Sprinkler water flow alarms Magnetic lock release mechanisms Magnetic lock release mechanisms Door unlocking devices Door unlocking devices Elevator recall Elevator recall Stairwell pressurization Stairwell pressurization

19 Slide 19 System Reliability Based on Four Elements Based on Four Elements –Design –Equipment  Underwriters Laboratories  Factory Mutual Global –Installation –Maintenance  Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance are crucial  Unfortunately, some problems may be identified after the previous three have been completed Equipment InstallationMaintenance Design

20 Slide 20 Fire Suppression Water Based Suppression Water Based Suppression Clean Agent Systems Clean Agent Systems Fire Extinguishers Fire Extinguishers

21 Slide 21 Water Based Suppression Wet-Pipe Wet-Pipe –System contains water under pressure at all times –Series of closed sprinkler heads –Heat activates sprinkler head –Water is discharged immediately * Not recommended if system could be exposed to temperatures below 40ºF

22 Slide 22 Wet-Pipe System 1. Main valve 2. Alarm check valve 3. Fire department check valve 4. Fire department connection 5. Water motor alarm 6. Sprinkler head 7. Inspector’s test valve

23 Slide 23 Wet-Pipe System Only the sprinkler heads heated by the fire activate Only the sprinkler heads heated by the fire activate Fire sprinklers spray 18 gallons of water per minute Fire sprinklers spray 18 gallons of water per minute Sprinkler head As temperature rises the bulb will shatter Water is released and deflected in a spray pattern

24 Slide 24 Sprinkler Color Codes and Ratings Color Sprinkler Classification Temperature Rating RedOrdinary Yellow/GreenIntermediate BlueHigh PurpleExtra High BlackUltra High

25 Slide 25 Field Method for Temporary Stoppage of Sprinkler Head

26 Slide 26 Dry-Pipe System System contains air under pressure System contains air under pressure –Compressor on system keeps pressure up Sprinkler heads hold the pressure Sprinkler heads hold the pressure A dry-pipe valve holds back the water supply A dry-pipe valve holds back the water supply Valve opens when pressure falls below a predetermined level Valve opens when pressure falls below a predetermined level Sprinkler head activation – pressure drop – valve opens – water sent to all heads – water discharged from activated sprinkler head(s) Sprinkler head activation – pressure drop – valve opens – water sent to all heads – water discharged from activated sprinkler head(s) * Recommended for areas that could experience freezing temperatures

27 Slide 27 How do Dry-Pipe Systems Work? 1. Heat Activated 2. Pressure Drop 5. Water Discharges from activated head 4. Water sent to all sprinkler heads 3. Valve Opens

28 Slide 28 Dry-Pipe System 1. Supply check valve 2. Main valve 3. Dry pipe valve 4. Fire department check valve 5. Fire department connection 6. Water motor alarm 7. Sprinkler head 8. Inspector’s test valve

29 Slide 29 Pre-action System System contains air under pressure System contains air under pressure –Compressor on system keeps pressure up Water held back by pre-action valve Water held back by pre-action valve System equipped with supplemental detection System equipped with supplemental detection Operation of detection system allows pre-action valve to open and water fills the system Operation of detection system allows pre-action valve to open and water fills the system Water not discharged until fire has generated sufficient heat to activate a sprinkler head Water not discharged until fire has generated sufficient heat to activate a sprinkler head * Typically found in computer rooms and museums

30 Slide 30 How do Pre-Action Systems Work? 1. Smoke Detected 5. Water Discharges from activated head 4. Water sent to all sprinkler heads 3. Valve Opens

31 Slide 31 Pre-action System 1. Supply check valve 2. Main valve 3. Water control or deluge valve 4. Fire department check valve 5. Fire department connection 6. Water motor alarm 7. Sprinkler head (closed) 8. Detector 9. Electrical bell 10. Manual release station 11. Control panel 12. Inspector’s test valve

32 Slide 32 Fire Pumps Fire pumps are utilized when the hydraulic demand exceeds public supply capacity Fire pumps are utilized when the hydraulic demand exceeds public supply capacity Components Components –Pump and motor –Controllers –Jockey pump –Water tank

33 Slide 33 Water Supply Standpipe System Standpipe System –Class I – 2 ½ inch hose connection intended for fire department use –Class II – 1 ½ inch hose connections intended for first-aid fire fighting –Class III – Provided with both 2 ½ inch and 1 ½ inch hose connections Fire Department Connection Fire Department Connection

34 Slide 34 Suppression Without Water Halon – NFPA 12A Halon – NFPA 12A –Being phased out per 1987 Montreal Protocol Carbon Dioxide – NFPA 12 Carbon Dioxide – NFPA 12 Clean Agent – NFPA 2001 Clean Agent – NFPA 2001 –Inert gas formulation * These systems are often not recognized as allowable substitute for water suppression

35 Slide 35 Fire Extinguishers NFPA 10 standard for portable fire extinguishers NFPA 10 standard for portable fire extinguishers Select appropriate extinguisher for area Select appropriate extinguisher for area –Class A, B, C, D, and K Identify hazard occupancy Identify hazard occupancy –Light Hazard  Offices, schools, assembly halls –Ordinary Hazard  Mercantile storage, parking garages –High Hazard  Woodworking area, warehouses

36 Slide 36 Conducting a Basic Assessment Determine Your Building Occupancy Type First Determine Your Building Occupancy Type First IBC Occupancy Classifications IBC Occupancy Classifications –Assembly: Group A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 –Business: Group B –Educational: Group E –Factory and Industrial: Groups F-1 and F-2 –High Hazard: Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5 –Institutional: Group I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4 –Mercantile: Group M –Residential: Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 –Storage: Groups S-1 and S-2 –Utility and Miscellaneous: Group U

37 Slide 37 Conducting a Basic Assessment Additional Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy Additional Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy –Covered Mall Buildings –High-Rise Buildings –Atriums –Underground Buildings –Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies –Motion Picture Projection Rooms –Stages and Platforms –Special Amusement Buildings –Aircraft-Related Occupancies –Combustible Storage –Hazardous Materials –Drying Rooms

38 Slide 38 Know Your Building Once occupancy is determined codes will give you guidance Once occupancy is determined codes will give you guidance –What type of construction is required? –Is a sprinkler system required? –Is a fire alarm system required? –Exiting and egress? –Emergency power required? –Is a smoke control system required? –Is a standpipe system required?

39 Slide 39 Conclusion Codes drive facility fire and life safety requirements Codes drive facility fire and life safety requirements Know what codes apply to your operation Know what codes apply to your operation All codes are MINIMUM requirements All codes are MINIMUM requirements Who is your AHJ? Who is your AHJ? –Many things can be left up to this individual’s interpretation Maintain systems in accordance with code requirements and manufacturer’s recommendations Maintain systems in accordance with code requirements and manufacturer’s recommendations

40 Slide 40 References International Building Code, International Code Council International Building Code, International Code Council –www.iccsafe.org National Fire Protection Association National Fire Protection Association –www.nfpa.org The Joint Commission The Joint Commission –www.jointcommission.org

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