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Unit 3 Fire Suppression Section 1 Detection and Alarm Systems.

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1 Unit 3 Fire Suppression Section 1 Detection and Alarm Systems

2 1. Importance of Fire Detection and Alarm Systems 1.1. Time Element 1.2. Notification a. Type A Manual Alarm b. Type B Automatic Alarm 1.3. Activation Note: Studies with children and notification!

3 2. Types of Detectors 2.1. There are three broad classifications of fire detection: Heat, Smoke & Flame Detectors Fire Detectors are used in a variety of fire prevention and suppression systems.

4 3. Classification of Heat Detectors 3.1. Heat Detectors respond to the excess heat generated in a fire 3.2. Two subclassifications based on operation Fixed Temperature which operate at predetermined temperature Rate of Rise operate based on a specified rate of temperature rise (degrees/min.)

5 4. Smoke Detectors 4.1. Smoke detectors respond to the presence of smoke 4.2. General Information

6 4.3. Classifications of Smoke Detectors 4.3. Two Classifications Photoelectric smoke detectors Ionization smoke detectors

7 4.3. Classifications of Smoke Detectors Photoelectric smoke detectors

8 4.3. Classifications of Smoke Detectors Ionization smoke detectors

9 PROPER LOCATION OF SMOKE DETECTORS VS 19-2 Outside Sleeping Areas On Each Level of House DiningKitchen EntryLiving Room Bath BR Master Bedroom Dining Room Living Room Basement Bedroom No. 1 Bedroom No. 2 Hallway

10 PROPER MOUNTING OF SMOKE DETECTORS VS Feet (1m) Horizontal Distance from Peak Mount on Wall at least 4 inches (102 mm) from ceiling No Closer than 4 inches (102 mm) From Side Wall Best in Center of Ceiling Dead Air Space No more than 12 inches (305 mm) from ceiling Best Location Acceptable Location

11 5. Flame Detectors 5.1. Flame detectors respond to the presence of a flame 5.2. General Information 5.3. Principle of Operation

12 6.0 Placement of Fire Detectors 6.1. In general, fire detectors are normally placed on the ceiling or within 12" of ceiling 6.2. Where possible the detectors should be located throughout entire building

13 6.0 Placement of Fire Detectors Cont’d 6.3. Spacing of detectors will vary based on several factors 6.4. Connection to Remote Locations 6.5. Testing & Maintenance of fire detectors

14 7.0 Components to a Fire Alarm System 7.1. Power supply 7.2. Detectors & manual pull boxes 7.3. Signal supervisors

15 7.0 Components to a Fire Alarm System Cont’d 7.4. Local Alarms 7.5. Indicator Boards 7.6. Reference for Alarm Systems

16 Unit 3 Fire Suppression Section 2 “Fixed Extinguishment Systems”

17 1. Introduction to Sprinkler Systems 1.1. Effectiveness of Sprinkler Systems 1.2. Function of Sprinklers 1.3. Advantages of Sprinklers 1.4. Cost of Sprinklers

18 2. Types of sprinkler systems 2.1. There are four major classifications of sprinkler systems

19 2. Types of sprinkler systems 2.2. Wet-pipe Systems Operation of system

20 2. Types of sprinkler systems 2.3. Dry Pipe System Operation of system

21 Air Water Dry Pipe System Two question to ask: activation / trip pressure for valve is air pressure greater than activation/trip pressure (should be 10 – 15 psi greater) Activation/Trip pressure set by the manufacture 70 psi Activation/Trip pressure = 40 psi Air pressure should be 50 – 55 psi

22 2. Types of sprinkler systems 2.4. Pre-action Systems Operation of System Advantages over dry- pipe system Disadvantage--two systems must both function properly

23 2. Types of sprinkler systems 2.5. Deluge sprinkler system Operation of system Uses of Deluge System

24 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.1. Water Supplies Types of water supplies  Public Water  Pressure Tanks

25 Basic Sprinkler System Components Types of water supplies Gravity feed from tank Easier for water to flow down than up

26 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components Types of water supplies  Fire pumps  Fire Department Connections

27 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components Amount of water supply a. Hazard of Occupancy—most important  Light hazard class  Ordinary hazard class Group 1 Group 2  Extra hazard class Group 1 Group 2

28 Basic Sprinkler System Components a. Hazard of occupancy Hazard Class Combustibility of Content Amount of Combustibles Heat Liberation Heads Open LightLow Few Ordinary Group 1 LowModerate Ordinary Group 2 Moderate Moderate - High Moderate Extra Hazard Group 1 Very High Many Extra Hazard Group 2 Very High Many

29 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components Amount of water supply b. Obstructions to water delivery c. High ceilings d. Unprotected vertical openings between floors e. Division of spaces

30 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components Calculating water supply Q = k √P Where: Q = supply (GPM) k = coefficient of orifice (inside pipe size) P = pressure (PSI)

31 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.2. Sprinkler Piping The piping and type of valve will vary depending on type of system Types of piping Hydraulic design of systems

32 SPRINKLER PIPING tank (or natural water supply public water supply - 8” – 12” yard main 6” – 8” always below freeze line cross main branch lines feed main sprinkler head post indicator valve “open” or “closed” should be “open” pad lock unlock to close valve riser (alarms, water flow valve, sprinkler valve)

33 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.3. Sprinkler Valves The purpose of a sprinkler valve is to retain & control flow of water and to isolate individual risers.

34 CONTROL VALVE LOCATION VS 15-4 Main Control Valve (OS&Y) Every system will have two valves: a main water control valve and a sprinkler valve. The main control valve should always be in the OPEN position.

35 TYPES OF CONTROL VALVES VS 15-5 OS&Y (Outside Screw and Yoke) PIV (Post Indicator Valve) WPIV (Wall Post Indicator Valve)

36 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.4. Alarms on Sprinkler Systems Every sprinkler system should have an alarm that sounds when water flows through the system Types of Alarms Supervisory signals

37 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.5. Test Connections Two Inch Drain Test Inspectors Test Connection

38 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Operating Principle Frame Arms Lever Arms Valve Cap Deflector Release Mechanism (Fusible Link)

39 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Type based on position

40 SPRINKLER DESIGNS VS 15-3 Pendant Sidewall Upright

41 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Type based on activation a.Solder-link b.Frangible bulb c.Fusible pellet

42 RELEASING MECHANISMS VS 15-2 Fusible Link (Standard) Chemical Pellet Frangible Bulb Fusible Link (Quick Response)

43 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Deflectors Flow rates

44 SPRINKLER DESIGNS VS 15-3 Pendant Sidewall Upright

45 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Temperature rating of sprinkler heads Non-Colored  Ordinary  F White  Intermediate  F Blue  High  F Red  Extra High  F Green  Very High  F Orange  Ultra High  F

46 3. Basic Sprinkler System Components 3.6. Sprinkler Heads Special service sprinkler heads

47 4. Location and Spacing of Sprinklers 4.1. Fundamental rule 4.2. Reference on location and spacing: NFPA code 13, Sprinkler Standards

48 4. Location and spacing of sprinklers 4.3. Spacing depends on the class of hazard of occupancy and the type of ceiling construction Light hazard - 15' maximum between sprinklers Ordinary hazard ' ft. depending on use of area Extra hazard - 12' maximum

49 4. Location and spacing of sprinklers 4.4. Sprinklers must also be spaced so that each sprinkler does not protect more than a specified area: Light hazard occupancy—floor area/sprinkler maximum of square feet, depending on type of ceiling Ordinary hazard occupancy--max. area per sprinkler square feet, depending on use of space Extra hazard occupancy--90 square feet sprinkler maximum Extra High Hazard 90 ft 2

50 4. Location and spacing of sprinklers 4.5. Determine protection area for sprinkler heads using the following formula: As = S X L Where “S” is the distance between heads on the lines and “L” is the distance between branch lines.

51 4. Location and spacing of sprinklers 4.5. Protection area of sprinklers along “walls” As = S X L S is the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the next sprinkler head L is the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the next branch line. 10 ft 3 ft 9 ft 4 ft A S = S x L S = 3 x 2 = 6 or 10 L = 4 x 2 = 8 or 9 A S = S x L A S = 90 ft

52 4. Location and spacing of sprinklers 4.6. Other location specifications that may influence spacing

53 5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 5.1. Application 5.2. Advantages 5.3. Disadvantage

54 5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 5.4. Storage of CO Delivery Mechanism

55 5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 5.6. Types of fixed systems Total flooding Local application 5.7. Inspection of Systems

56 6. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems 6.1. Application 6.2. Operation of system

57 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 6.3. Types of fixed systems – T otal flooding apply to an entire room or confined area –Local application applying CO 2 over the surface of the tank local application Acid Pickling Tank

58 6. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems 6.4. Quantity and rate of application is determined by a qualified professional 6.5. Inspection and maintenance must be completed at least once each year (NFPA Code #17)

59 7. Foam Fire Extinguishing System 7.1. Application 7.2. Inspection and maintenance 7.3. Fire code for foam systems is NFPA #11 and NFPA #16 for foam-H 2 combination systems

60 Foam Fire Extinguishing System 7.4. Types of systems –fixed activate with detector head high hazard areas –portable fire departments 7.5 Video on FoamVideo on Foam liquid air mechanical agitation

61 Unit 3 Fire Extinguishment Section 3 “Explosion Prevention”

62 1. Introduction 1.1. Principles of Explosion Prevention a) Venting to relieve the pressure b) Suppression to extinguish or retard the deflagration c) Purging to eliminate the combustible mixture

63 2. Fundamentals of explosion venting 2.1. Location of hazardous operations 2.2. Design of the vent Location of vent is important Size of vent Design variables for vents

64 2. Fundamentals of explosion venting 2.3. Design of vent closures Most effective vent for release of explosion pressure is an unobstructed vent opening Several small vents may be as effective as one large opening as long as total area is the same

65 2. Fundamentals of explosion venting 2.3. Design of vent closures The nearer a vent is located to the point of explosion the more effective it will be If diaphragms (of the same size and thickness) are made thicker then more pressure will be required to rupture them

66 2. Fundamentals of explosion venting 2.4. Maintenance of vents

67 3. Explosion Suppression 3.1. Elements in the system Pressure Detector Suppressors Suppressant Material


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