Presentation on theme: "Fire protection systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fire protection systems Fire protection is the first defense against fires and comes in many forms and designs.Includes Water based suppression systems, Fire detection, and special extinguishing systems as well as special detection systems.Fire protection systems
2 Fire Sprinkler Systems Water based fire protection systems have been around for about a hundred years.
3 Fire Lines Components Water main DCVA – Double Check Valve Assembly Fire Department Connection (FDC)Indicator Valve AssemblyPost Indicator Valve (PIV)Wall Post Indicator Valve (WPIV)A fire line supplies fire protection systems from a water supply and may include many components.
6 City of Bothell Requirements Locations of FDCsWithin 50 feet of structure.Within 50 feet of a fire hydrant. (Outside of the Downtown Sub area)Can be combination or single use.PaintedLabeled for type and address (If needed)As the downtown sub-area becomes more densely developed, you will see more wall mounted connection and control points.Some requirements are changing as we change the overall design of the downtown sub area.Combination systems join standpipe and sprinkler system together from one source.
7 Indicator Valve Assemblies Post Indicator Valve.Wall Post Indicator Valve.Outside Screw and yokePurpose:To control the flow of water to the fire protection system.Visible indicator of the position of the device.OPEN/SHUTVisible screw threadsSecurityChainsTamper devicePost indicator valves are the most commonWall post indicator valves are becoming more common due to restrictions of a more densely built community.Control valves may be located at the riser room, and not outside the building.
9 General Design Standard for the City of Bothell FDCCheck ValveFeed from mainPIVControl ValveFire Line
10 Fire Suppression Riser PurposeTo control and distribute the water to the suppression devices.To allow reporting to a notification device of tampering or water flow.Risers come in many forms, from a standard wet pipe riser to much more complicated systems.
11 Shot Gun Riser Water is in the system at all times. Released by the activation of a sprinkler head.
17 Dry Pipe Riser Used for areas subject to freeze. The piping above the valve assembly has no water in it.Usually has an air compressor to hold back the water from entering the pipes in non-alarm conditions.
18 Dry Pipe Riser Face Bolt Latch Dry area of riser Valve Cap Water Inlet Pressurized AirFace BoltLatchDry area of riserAir pressure hold the valve cap shut against the water pressure.The latch holds the valve in the open position until it is released.The face bolts can be removed to gain access to the dry area of the riser valve assembly.Valve CapHingeWater Inlet
19 Basic PrincipleHeat from combustion breaks the bulb or fusible link on a sprinkler head.Pressurized air in the branch and main lines travels through the system escaping through the opened sprinkler head or heads.Air from the system leaves the main chamber of the riser valve.Release of the pressurized air allows for the valve to lift off the inlet.Water moves from the main line into the system lines.
20 Special RequirementsTime constraints for air to leave the system and water to reach the sprinkler head.NFPA 13 – 60 seconds of less for water delivery.If the system takes too long…An “Accelerator” may be needed.Air compressor to keep pressure in the system and keep the main alarm valve from opening.Signal to alarm system when system goes “WET”.
21 Pre-Action SystemUsually used for areas within a building that may need special application due to sensitive equipment or where accidental activation is undesired.Pre-action systems are hybrids of wet, dry, and deluge systems, depending on the exact system goal.There are two main sub-types of pre-action systems: single interlock, and double interlock.
22 Pre-ActionSingle interlock systems are similar to dry systems except that these systems require that a “preceding” fire detection event, typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector, takes place prior to the “action” of water introduction into the system’s piping by opening the pre-action valve, which is a mechanically latched valve.Deluge system are typical of these.
23 Pre-ActionDouble interlock systems are similar to deluge systems except that automatic sprinklers are used.These systems require that both a “preceding” fire detection event, typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector, and an automatic sprinkler operation take place prior to the “action” of water introduction into the system’s piping.
24 Pre-ActionActivation of either the fire detectors alone, or sprinklers alone, without the concurrent operation of the other, will not allow water to leave the piping system.Because water does not enter the piping until a sprinkler operates, double interlock systems are considered as dry systems in terms of water delivery times, and similarly require a larger design area.
26 Deluge System In these systems, sprinklers are open at all times. There is NO fusible link or temperature sensitive bulb.
27 Deluge System A fire detection device controls the main valve. Very similar to a pre-action system.When the system is activated, the valve opens, allowing large amounts of water to flow through all of the sprinklers.They are usually used in facilities that contain hazardous materials such as: flammable liquids, chemicals, and explosives.A “Flooding” response where water is simultaeously delivered to all sprinkler heads in the design area.
29 Standpipe System A system of pipes and connection points. Mainly used to extend the reach of hose lines.Typical connections are 2 ½ inch and 1 ½ inch.Connections are normally located in stairwells.Can also be found in hallways, roofs and places where the spacing between access points exceeds 300 feet.
30 Standpipe SystemSystems can be as complicated as the building and its contents require.
31 Standpipe System System can be normally dry. Supplied by water from a fire apparatus.System can be normally wet.Supplied by water from the fire line.Supplemented with water from a fire apparatus.System can be a combination.Combined with the sprinkler system.
32 Standpipe SystemClass I – A Class I standpipe system shall provide a 2 1/2 inch hose connection for use primarily by trained personnel or by the fire department during initial response. This class has no hose attached.
33 Standpipe SystemClass II – A Class II standpipe system shall provide 1 1/2 inch hose stations to supply water for use primarily by trained personnel or by the fire department during initial response. These are typically found in cabinets with 100’ of hose.
34 Standpipe SystemClass III – A Class III standpipe system shall provide 1 1/2 inch hose stations to supply water for use by trained personnel and a 2 1/2 inch hose connection to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in heavy fire streams. Many times these connections will provide a 2-1/2 inch reducer to a 1-1/2 hose connection.
35 Special Extinguishing Systems FM-200An extinguishing system that utilizes a chemical extinguishing agent.The agent is less hazardous than Halon.Leaves no residue on equipment.Uses a interlock release system.Usually smoke detectors.Countdown timer to allow for escape from the room prior to release.Manual activation and abort buttons.Visual and audible alarms.
40 These are just some of them. Kitchen Hood SystemsNFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking OperationsNFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler SystemsNFPA 17 Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing SystemsNFPA 17A Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing SystemsUL 300 Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Commercial Cooking EquipmentUL 710 Standard for Exhaust Hoods for Commercial Cooking EquipmentThese are just some of them.
41 Kitchen Hood Systems Why do we need hood extinguishing systems? What are some of the hazards associated with kitchen cooking?How frequently are hoods to be cleaned?How frequently are the suppression components to be serviced?What types of extinguishing agents are used?
43 Kitchen Hood Systems NFPA 96 Cleaning schedule Monthly - Facilities that serve solid fuel cooking need to be cleaned.Quarterly - Facilities that serving high volume cooking like 24hr restaurants and wok cooking .Semi- Annual - Facilities that serve moderate volume cooking to be cleaned.Annually - Facilities that serve low volume cooking like churches, day camps, senior centers.
52 Kitchen Hood Systems Concerns of a dirty hood system. Build up of grease from grease laden vapors.Producing a highly combustible fuel load.Grease is a corrosive material that over time can weaken or destroy structural members.Rapid fire spread.
53 Kitchen Hood Systems Activation process Detection of a fire Fusible linkShut down of gas supply and/or electricity of heat sourcesShut down of make-up air.Notification to FA panelFire alarm activated.Activation of suppression chemical.Extinguishment of fire.These all may occur at nearly the same time
61 System ParticularsEach device is in constant communication with the panel.Panel can identify the location and condition of the device.Can monitor other devices such as VESDA and Special extinguishing systems and Smoke Control.
62 Communication Methods International Fire Code 2009 allows for alternate methods of communication with the monitoring station.What does this mean?
63 New technology must meet NFPA 72 standards New technology is now replacing some of the long standing modes of communicating with the monitoring station.POTS - Copper wireDigital DialerDAC – Digital Alarm CommunicatorSTU – subscriber terminal unitNew technology must meet NFPA 72 standardsRF – Radio FrequencyCellular – cell systemIPDAC – InternetVOIP
65 VESDACan be used where due to sensitive equipment, early detection is needed.
66 VESDAHow it worksConstantly “sniffing” the air. Uses a high efficiency aspirator.Detects minuscule amounts of smoke by the use of a laser.Alerts in a pre-alarm and alarm manner.Multiple levels of alarm are available before a full alarm is activated.