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Foundations of Real Estate Management

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1 Foundations of Real Estate Management
BOMA International Module 4: Building Operations II Fire Alarm and Fire Sprinkler Systems

2 Objectives Describe the purpose of the fire alarm system and the fire sprinkler system List the parts and explain the operation of the fire alarm system Describe how a standpipe system operates List the parts and explain the operation of the wet pipe fire sprinkler system Describe the general operation of the wet pipe sprinkler system, the deluge sprinkler system, the pre-action system, and chemical systems

3 Fire Alarm & Fire Sprinkler Systems
Fire alarm system Detects emergency Summons fire department Notifies property management company Triggers evacuation of building (if appropriate) Fire sprinkler system Provides temporary fire control until fire department arrives

4 Fire Protection Systems
Classifications High rise Usually 75+ feet Low rise Single story

5 Fire Protection Systems
Not all buildings have an up-to-date fire alarm or sprinkler system Older buildings “Grandfathering” allowances from Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) Until existing system is no longer operational Until major renovations occur to that system No fire alarm system

6 Fire Alarm Systems 3 components Fire alarm panel Initiating devices
Notification appliances

7 Fire Alarm Systems Fire Alarm Panel Photo courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

8 Fire Alarm Systems Annunciator Panels
Photos courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

9 Fire Alarm Systems Knox® Box Photo courtesy of Transwestern

10 Fire Alarm Systems 3 Signal Types Alarm signal Trouble signal
Senses emergency condition Dispatches fire department Trouble signal Detects wiring problem Notifies property manager Supervisory trouble signals Detects problem that renders system inoperable

11 Central monitoring station
Fire Alarm Systems Central monitoring station 24-hour coverage Must comply with UL or FMRC On-site control center No monitoring service (rare)

12 Fire Alarm Systems Initiating devices Pull stations
Automatic initiating devices Heat detectors Smoke detectors CO detectors Fire alarm system devices Water flow switches Valve tamper switches Water temperature alarms

13 Fire Alarm Systems Manual Pull Station
Photo courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

14 Fire Alarm Systems Heat detectors Fixed temperature Rate-of-rise
Sound alarm when temperature reaches a certain level Rate-of-rise Sound alarm when temperature rises rapidly (without a threshold temperature) Combination Fixed temperature and rate-of-rise detectors in one device

15 Fire Alarm Systems Smoke detectors Ionization Photoelectric
Detect fires with little smoke Photoelectric Detect visible smoke Projected beam Good for places with high ceilings In HVAC ducts (duct detectors)

16 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detectors
Fire Alarm Systems Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detectors CO is odorless, colorless, tasteless gas Produces flu-like symptoms; death Detectors alert management company Detectors can tie into the BMS Increase exhaust fans to remove CO

17 Fire Alarm Systems Carbon Monoxide (CO) often found:
By-product of heating/hot water system Vented out of the building through a flue By-product of automobiles Ventilation system removes CO from garage By-product of propane combustion Using propane forklift in closed area is a safety hazard

18 Fire Alarm Systems Sprinkler system connections to fire alarm system
Water flow switches Detect water flowing in sprinkler system Valve tamper switches Detect when sprinkler valve is closed Water temperature alarms Detect low water temp to prevent pipe from freezing

19 Water Flow and Valve Tamper Switches
Fire Alarm Systems Water Flow and Valve Tamper Switches Photo courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

20 Fire Alarm Systems Work with your instructor to determine the alarm that will be generated by each of these conditions:

21 Fire Alarm Systems Notification Appliances
When alarm is detected, initiating devices Send signal to annunciator panel Send signal to central station Alerts fire department Alerts property management company Activate notification appliances

22 Fire Alarm Systems Horn and Strobe Appliances ADA requirements
Older systems – bell, horn, or siren Current systems combine horn and strobe Low rise – 4-count standardized tone with synchronized strobe High rise – Emergency voice alarm communications (EVAC) system

23 Horn and Strobe/Speaker Appliance
Fire Alarm Systems Horn and Strobe/Speaker Appliance Photo courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

24 Fire Alarm Systems Emergency Voice Alarm Communications (EVAC) System
Automatic mode Pre-recorded message through horn and speaker appliance Manual mode Trained building employee uses microphone and horn/speaker appliance

25 Fire Alarm Systems Magnetic door holders Magnetic locks
Fire and smoke doors in common areas Magnetic locks Fire escape doors (to allow access back onto floors that are normally locked)

26 Fire doors with automatic closers
Fire Alarm Systems Fire doors with automatic closers Photo courtesy of Transwestern

27 Fire Alarm Systems Smoke management fan Stairwell pressurization fans
Removes smoke and heat from atrium Stairwell pressurization fans Keeps smoke out of stairwells Elevator recall Recalls elevators to the ground floor Prevents use in evacuation Allows for use by fire department under certain conditions

28 Fire Alarm Systems Testing of fire alarm system is in accordance with
NFPA 72 Insurance company requirements Local building and fire codes Share information with your local fire company about your building and its operations

29 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Activate in response to heat Designed to contain the fire May not extinguish the fire Wet pipe v. dry pipe system

30 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Backflow preventer Fire department connection Allows fire engine to boost the pressure of the sprinkler system Fire pump Sprinkler riser Sprinkler mains/branches Sprinkler heads

31 Fire Department Connection (FDC)
Fire Alarm Systems Fire Department Connection (FDC) Photo courtesy of Transwestern

32 Fire Alarm Systems Fire Pump Photo courtesy of Transwestern

33 Fire Alarm Systems Sprinkler Head Photo courtesy of Transwestern

34 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Sprinklers in warehouse applications Low fire load -- no supplemental sprinklers High fire load -- supplemental sprinklers are required In-rack sprinklers Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) Speed: sense fire and deploy faster Volume: deploy more water (100 gpm v. 25 pm) Droplet size: larger droplets of water

35 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Standpipe System “Fire hydrant inside the building” Separate from the sprinkler system Fire engine connects to standpipe connection and pumps water into building for fire department use Usually in fire escape stairwells

36 Standpipe Connection in Stairwell
Fire Alarm Systems Standpipe Connection in Stairwell Photo courtesy of Transwestern

37 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System Used in areas prone to freezing Piping is filled with air under pressure Air pressure pushing against dry pipe valve holds water back in heated area

38 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System Activation Sprinkler head activates like normal Air rushes out of sprinkler head Air pressure cannot be maintained Dry pipe valve opens Water fills system and rushes out of sprinkler head Takes no more than 60 seconds per NFPA Requires more maintenance than wet system

39 Fire Alarm Systems Dry Pipe Valve Photo courtesy of SimplexGrinnell

40 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Deluge System Used for areas with high fire load Laid out like conventional wet sprinkler system No sprinkler heads on end of each pipe Uses heat sensors (fire alarm system) to indicate a fire is imminent – or a manual pull station Flows through all of openings at same time

41 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Pre-Action System Used in computer rooms and areas where water would be harmful Fire alarm must detect heat and/or smoke and Fire sprinkler system must detect heat (fusible link melts) No discharge unless both conditions are met

42 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Chemical Systems Gaseous fire suppression system Oxygen limiting Occupants must evacuate before system deploys Does not damage computers and other electronic components Wet chemical fire suppression systems Over cooking areas in food service applications (hoods)

43 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Fire Extinguisher Classes

44 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Fire Extinguishers Usually 5 or 10 pound Usually red in color (not a standard) Usually Class A-B-C Class D extinguishers are in areas where combustible metals are used Class K extinguishers are for commercial kitchens Water-based and CO2 extinguishers have largely been replaced with chemical extinguishers

45 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Fire Extinguishers Inspection Requirements Monthly by building engineer Annually by fire extinguisher technician At regular intervals (5, 6, 10, or 12 years) for testing, inspection, and replacement of critical components

46 Fire Sprinkler Systems
Using a Fire Extinguisher Think PASS Pull safety pin Aim nozzle at base of fire Squeeze handle Sweep extinguisher from side to side

47 Guidelines for Using a Fire Extinguisher
Call for immediate evacuation by activating fire alarm system Evaluate the situation Use fire extinguisher on small fires only Regardless of cause of fire, allow fire department to continue their response. Never allow fire to block your exit out of building, and never turn your back on the fire

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