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World War II 1939-1945. Rise of Dictatorships & Militarism The economic depression that followed WWI gave rise to dictators Adolf Hitler & the Nazis (Fascists)

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Presentation on theme: "World War II 1939-1945. Rise of Dictatorships & Militarism The economic depression that followed WWI gave rise to dictators Adolf Hitler & the Nazis (Fascists)"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II 1939-1945

2 Rise of Dictatorships & Militarism The economic depression that followed WWI gave rise to dictators Adolf Hitler & the Nazis (Fascists) in 1933 violated the Treaty of Versailles, rebuilt Germany and expanded into Austria & Czechoslovakia Benito Mussolini in Italy

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4 Militarism Militarists in Japan led by General Tojo conquered Manchuria and invaded China Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy joined together to form the Axis Powers

5 America’s Attempt at Neutrality Neutrality Acts prohibited Americans from selling arms to warring nations or traveling on their ships 1937—Roosevelt gave a speech declaring that war was similar to a contagious disease and calling for a “quarantine” of aggressive nations to keep America from getting involved. Just in case, Congress increased spending on the army and navy

6 Early World War II 1939—Germany took Poland 1940—France fell Germany wanted to invade Great Britain Germany led continuous air raids on English cities hoping to weaken them, but it failed Germany focused on the Soviet Union August 1941—FDR & Churchill met in the Atlantic to outline aims for a post-war world, called the Atlantic Charter, setting 8 democratic principles—including gradual disarmament

7 Nazis conquer France

8 Nazi Luftwaffe dropped bombs on English cities

9 Churchill surveying the damage of the London raids Citizens sought safety in the subway

10 FDR & Winston Churchill sign the Atlantic Charter

11 US close to War 1941 FDR sends armed merchant ships to carry supplies to Britain 1937 When Japan attacked China, US cut off all trade with Japan and froze their assets in the US

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13 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Day that will Live in Infamy December 7, 1941 Japan believed a surprise attack would catch American unprepared and eliminate them as a naval power in the Pacific Japanese airplanes attack a majority of the US fleet at Pearl Harbor The next day, US declares war on Japan 4 days later, Germany & Italy declares war on the US

14 Pearl Harbor

15 USS Arizona

16 USS California

17 Explosion of USS Shaw

18 USS West Virginia & USS Tennessee

19 The Home Front The Draft—Men 18-45; women could enlist; 1 million African-Americans served; 1:10 Americans served Females & Minorities—filled the gap in available jobs; 50% of women were employed during the war War-Time Production—managed economy; controlled use of raw materials; factory conversion to wartime production Rationing—rubber, gasoline, oil, sugar, butter and meat

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23 Internment of Japanese Americans The attack on Pearl Harbor created fear among Americans, especially on the West Coast. Japanese Americans were forced to relocate to internment camps. The camps were primitive and crowded. The Supreme Court upheld these relocations in Korematsu v. US

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26 Japanese American announce patriotism

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31 War against Germany Instead of fighting on 2 fronts, FDR focused on Germany first 1942—defeated the Axis in North Africa 1943-4—headed into Italy June 6, 1944—Invasion of Normandy Quickly freed Paris and worked toward Berlin, while Russia came from the other direction

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33 Russians make it to Berlin 1 st Nazis surrender May 1945

34 The War against Japan Japan made significant gains, while US rebuilt and focused on Germany 1943—tide turned when we defeated the Japanese navy in the Battle of Midway US goes on the offensive and begins their strategy of “island hopping”

35 US dive bombers At the Battle of Midway

36 USS Yorktown at the Battle of Midway

37 Battle of Midway memorial to the dead

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40 Truman’s decision to drop the Atomic Bomb FDR died before the end of the war Harry Truman, FDR’s successor, feared an invasion might cost a million US soldiers Truman decides to drop the bomb instead August 6—bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 9—bomb dropped on Nagasaki over 100,000 died with each bomb

41 Kamikaze Showed the length Japan would go to protect Japan

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43 Damage due to kamikaze

44 Fat Man & Little Boy

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46 Hiroshima

47 Nagasaki

48 The Holocaust Nazis killed 6 million European Jews and other undesirables Systematically rounded up and sent by train to extermination camps like Aushwitz Liberation revealed dead and half-starved survivors Nazi “crimes against humanity” were held at Nuremberg

49 Jews wearing the Star of David mandated by the Nuremberg Laws

50 Jews were identified by #s carved into their skin

51 Auschwitz


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