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Groups © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Group: “Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity.” Four Sociological Criteria of a Group: ¶Two or more freely interacting individuals ·Collective norms ¸Collective goals ¹Common identity Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development ¶Forming: “Ice breaking” stage; low trust; holding back; need for leadership (Orientation) ·Storming: Power structure is tested; subgroups form (Redefinition) ¸Norming: Questions about power and authority resolved (Coordination) ¹Performing: Attention devoted to solving task problems (Formalization) ºAdjourning: Work is done; return to independence; a sense of loss (Termination) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Functional Roles Performed by Group Members Task RolesDescription Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent values Elaborator Promotes greater understanding Coordinator Pulls together ideas and suggestions Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural technician Performs routine duties Recorder Performs a “group memory” function © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Functional Roles Performed by Group Members (Continued) Maintenance RolesDescription Encourager Fosters group solidarity Harmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator Records comments on group processes/dynamics Follower Serves as a passive audience © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Dysfunctional Roles Performed by Group Members Individual RolesDescription Avoider Remains apart from others; resists passively Blocker Resists stubbornly; negative; returns to rejected issues Clown Continuously jokes and attempts to distract group from purpose Dominator Manipulates group; interrupts others; gains attention Recognition seeker Calls attention to self by boasting, bragging, acting superior © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Work Group Size Group interaction Group cohesiveness Job satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Social loafing Productivity
Group Norms Norms are shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior
Development of Group Norms Explicit statements by supervisors or co- workers Critical events in the group’s history Primacy Carryover behaviors from past situations
Symptoms of Groupthink 4Invulnerability 4Inherent morality 4Rationalization 4Stereotyped views of opposition 4Self-censorship 4Illusion of unanimity 4Peer pressure 4Mindguards © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Preventing Groupthink ¶Every group member a critical evaluator ·Avoid rubber-stamp decisions ¸Different groups explore same problems ¹Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts ºAssign role of devil’s advocate »Rethink a consensus © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
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