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Groups © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Group: “Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity.” Four Sociological Criteria of a Group: ¶Two or more freely interacting individuals ·Collective norms ¸Collective goals ¹Common identity Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development ¶Forming: “Ice breaking” stage; low trust; holding back; need for leadership (Orientation) ·Storming: Power structure is tested; subgroups form (Redefinition) ¸Norming: Questions about power and authority resolved (Coordination) ¹Performing: Attention devoted to solving task problems (Formalization) ºAdjourning: Work is done; return to independence; a sense of loss (Termination) © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Functional Roles Performed by Group Members Task RolesDescription Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent values Elaborator Promotes greater understanding Coordinator Pulls together ideas and suggestions Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural technician Performs routine duties Recorder Performs a “group memory” function © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Functional Roles Performed by Group Members (Continued) Maintenance RolesDescription Encourager Fosters group solidarity Harmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator Records comments on group processes/dynamics Follower Serves as a passive audience © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Dysfunctional Roles Performed by Group Members Individual RolesDescription Avoider Remains apart from others; resists passively Blocker Resists stubbornly; negative; returns to rejected issues Clown Continuously jokes and attempts to distract group from purpose Dominator Manipulates group; interrupts others; gains attention Recognition seeker Calls attention to self by boasting, bragging, acting superior © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Work Group Size Group interaction Group cohesiveness Job satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Social loafing Productivity
Group Norms Norms are shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior
Development of Group Norms Explicit statements by supervisors or co- workers Critical events in the group’s history Primacy Carryover behaviors from past situations
Symptoms of Groupthink 4Invulnerability 4Inherent morality 4Rationalization 4Stereotyped views of opposition 4Self-censorship 4Illusion of unanimity 4Peer pressure 4Mindguards © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Preventing Groupthink ¶Every group member a critical evaluator ·Avoid rubber-stamp decisions ¸Different groups explore same problems ¹Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts ºAssign role of devil’s advocate »Rethink a consensus © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Chapter Ten Effective Groups and Teamwork. 10-1a Fundamentals of Group Behavior Formal and Informal Groups Functions of Formal Groups The Group Development.
Describe the five stages of Tuckman’s theory of group development. Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations.
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Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight Group Dynamics.
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Chapter 12 Group Dynamics Groups and Social Groups and Social Exchanges Exchanges The Group Development The Group Development Process Process Roles and.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Dynamics Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
© 2003 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Chapter Seven Effective Groups and Teamwork.
© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Thirteen Groups & Teams: Increasing Cooperating, Reducing Conflict McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.
Effective Groups and Teamwork Chapter Nine Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Organizational Behavior:
Dr. P.B. Verma Professor of Community Medicine P.D.U. Medical College, Rajkot Group Dynamics.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. © 1999 Slide 13-1 Chapter 13 Groups, Teams, and Their Leadership.
Group Communication What is the difference between a group & a crowd? Group- Consists of people who communicate with each other over time and share an.
PowerPoint™ Presentations prepared by: Naomi Young University of California, San Diego Human Communication: The Basic Course Twelfth Edition Joseph A.
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Team work & Team building team work and team building. u To understand the basic concepts and ideas of team work and team building. u To appreciate the.
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Looking ahead - How do teams contribute to organizations? › What are the current trends in the use of teams? › How do teams work? › How do teams make.
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Schermerhorn - Chapter 131 Chapter 13 Teams and Teamwork 4 Planning Ahead –How do teams help organizations? –How do teams work? –How do teams make decisions?
Copyright ©2011, 2008, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Small Group Characteristics Small number—usually 5–12 related individuals Share.
Team Development Objectives To know the stages in the development of teams To understand team roles To understand about team decisions To learn how to.
Group Dynamics Stages of Group Development. Group Dynamics O This week we will be looking at the importance of working in groups O Positive and negative.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Leadership in Groups & Teams. “It is quite possible that the mark of a truly effective internal team leader is to be more of a coach and to empower the.
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2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd Chapter 7 Groups and Teamwork.
Group Roles Small Group Communication. Task Roles The group's task is the job to be done. People who are concerned with the task tend to: 1. make suggestions.
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Chapter Thirteen Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.
GROUP COMMUNICATIONS. I. characteristics of a group all groups and their success are affected by 3 variables – SIZE NORMS COHESION.
PARTICIPATION & DELEGATION. The Continuum of Participation Occasional use of teams and employee participation TraditionalorganizationTeam-basedorganization.
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GROUP DECISION MAKING ADVANTAGES BROAD REPRESENTATION TAPS EXPERTISE MORE IDEAS GENERATED EVALUATION OF OPTIONS COORDINATION HIGH ACCEPTANCE DISADVANTAGES.
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Small Group Communication. What is Small-Group Communication? The interaction between three to nine people who are working together to achieve an interdependent.
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