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Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Organizational Behavior: Group Dynamics and Teamwork.

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Presentation on theme: "Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Organizational Behavior: Group Dynamics and Teamwork."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Organizational Behavior: Group Dynamics and Teamwork

2 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Sociological Criteria of a group Two or more freely interacting people (Interdependent -interact and influence each other); Mutually accountable for achieving common goals; Common Identity; Collective Norms..

3 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran What Makes People Join Groups? StatusSecurity Power Goal Achievement Self- Esteem Affiliation

4 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Groups versus Teams All teams are groups Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e.g., group of employees enjoying lunch together) Teams have a positive synergy Skills in teams are complementary

5 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Functions of Formal Groups Organizational Functions Individual Functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness. 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.

6 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Theories of Group Formation Propinquity Needs, Functions and Goals Interaction Balance Theory Exchange Theory Five-Stage Theory Punctuated Equilibrium Model

7 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence Independence

8 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development (continued) Individual Issues FormingStormingNormingPerforming “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?”

9 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran NOT QUITE A SOCIAL GROUP Category –People with common status (girls, doctors, nurses) Aggregate –People in the same place (people at the mall) Crowd –Temporary cluster of people (spectators at a game, passengers waiting to board an airplane)

10 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran PRIMARY GROUPS Traits –Small –Personal orientation –Enduring (long lasting) –Frequent interaction – Face-to-face –Intimate –sense of belonging – emotional orientation: bond based on emotions –loyalty Primary relationships –First group experienced in life –Irreplaceable –Security Assistance of all kinds –Emotional to financial Examples: the family.

11 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran

12 SECONDARY GROUPS Traits –Large membership: larger than primary groups –Goal or activity orientation –impersonal and formal –Infrequent interaction –Secondary relationships –Weak emotional ties between persons –Short term Importance –Networking –Career goals Examples: co-workers, political organizations

13 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran In-Groups and Out-Groups In-group –“group with which people identify and have a sense of belonging” –pronoun “WE” Out-group –“group that people do not identify with –pronoun “THEY” –Loyalty to INGROUP –Opposition to OUTGROUPS

14 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Reference Groups a standard to evaluate ourselves normative function comparative function In-groups can be secondary or primary groups, but in either case, they are always reference groups, real or imaginary.

15 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Group Dynamics Leadership Roles Norms Status Size Composition Cohesiveness 1.Socio-emotional 2.Instrumental

16 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Different Role Requirements Role Identity Role Perception Role Expectations Role Conflict Role Overload Role Ambiguity

17 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Task Roles Roles Description Initiator Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent issues Elaborator Elaborator Promote greater understanding Coordinator Coordinator Pulls together key ideas and suggestions Orienter Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural Technician Procedural Technician Performs routine duties Recorder Recorder Performs a “group memory” function

18 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Roles Description Roles Description Encourager Encourager Fosters group solidarity Harmonizer HarmonizerMediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others”half way” Gate Keeper Gate Keeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator CommentatorRecords comments on group processes/dynamics Follower FollowerServes as a passive audience Maintenance Roles

19 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Individual versus Group Decision Making Speed Clear Accountability Consistent Values Knowledge & Diversity High Quality Decisions Increased Acceptance IndividualsGroups

20 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Group Dysfunctions Conformity (Sharif, Asch, Milgram, Hofling) Groupthink Social loafing Risky shift

21 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran GROUP CONFORMITY STUDIES PRESSURES TO CONFORM TO GROUP DESIRES Asch’s research –Willingness to COMPROMISE our own judgments –Line experiment Milgram’s research –Role authority plays –Following orders Janis’ research –Negative side of ‘groupthink’ Lack of objectivity

22 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran ASCH’S LINE EXPERIMENT

23 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Symptoms of Groupthink Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Mindguards

24 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran How to Prevent Groupthink  Every group member a critical evaluator  Avoid rubber-stamp decisions  Different groups explore same problems  Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts  Assign role of devil’s advocate  Rethink a consensus

25 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Conditions for Social Loafing Low task interdependence Individual output not visible Routine, uninteresting tasks Low task significance Low collectivist values

26 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Types of Teams General Typology of Teams Advice Advice Production Production Project Project Action Action Common Forms of Teams Problem solving Problem solving Self-managed Self-managed Cross-functional Cross-functional Virtual Virtual

27 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Virtual Teams Cross-functional teams that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries using information technology Increasingly possible because of: –Technology –Knowledge-based work Increasingly necessary because of: –Globalization –Knowledge management –Need for team work

28 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Survey Evidence: What Self- Managing Teams Manage Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-Managing Teams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves. Schedule work assignments67% Work with outside customers67 Conduct training59 Set production goals/quotas56 Work with suppliers/vendors44 Purchase equipment/services43 Develop budgets39 Do performance appraisals36 Hire co-workers 33 Fire co-workers 14 Source: Adapted from “1996 industry Report: What Self-Managing Teams Manage,” Training, October 1996, p. 69

29 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Team Effectiveness Model Task characteristics Team size Team composition Team Design Achieve organizational goals Achieve organizational goals Satisfy member needs Satisfy member needs Maintain team survival Maintain team survival TeamEffectiveness Team developmentTeam development Team normsTeam norms Team rolesTeam roles Team cohesivenessTeam cohesiveness Team Processes Organizational and Team Environment Reward systems Reward systems Communication systems Communication systems Physical space Physical space Organizational environment Organizational environment Organizational structure Organizational structure Organizational leadership Organizational leadership

30 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Teams Higher satisfaction Less conflict Faster team development More efficient coordination Performs better on simple tasks More conflict Slower team development -- takes longer to agree on norms and goals Better knowledge and resources for complex tasks Tend to be more creative Higher potential for support outside the team Homogeneous Teams Heterogeneous teams

31 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Stages of Team Development

32 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Team Norms Norm:Norm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.” Informal rules and expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors Normsdevelop through: Norms develop through: 1.Explicit statements 2.Critical events in team’s history 3.Primacy 4.Beliefs/values members bring to the team and team experiences Why Norms Are Enforced Help the group or organization survive Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity

33 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran TeamCohesiveness MemberSimilarity MemberInteraction TeamSize Somewhat Difficult Entry TeamSuccess ExternalChallenges Causes of Team Cohesiveness

34 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Team Cohesiveness Outcomes Want to remain members Willing to share information Strong interpersonal bonds Want to support each other Resolve conflict effectively More satisfied and experience less stress Members of cohesive teams:.

35 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Strong Increase In Productivity Moderate Increase In Productivity No Significant Effect On Productivity Decrease in Productivity Cohesiveness Alignment of group and organizational goals HighLow Cohesiveness-Productivity Relationship High Low

36 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Selection Shaping Team Players Training Rewards

37 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Effective Teamwork Through Trust How to Build Trust CommunicationCommunication (keep everyone informed; give feedback; tell the truth). SupportSupport (be available and approachable). RespectRespect (delegate; be an active listener). FairnessFairness (give credit where due; objectively evaluate performance). PredictabilityPredictability (be consistent; keep your promises). CompetenceCompetence (demonstrate good business sense and professionalism). Trust: Trust: “Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.” Effective Teamwork Through Cooperation CooperationCooperation CompetitionCompetition

38 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Effective Teamwork Through Cohesiveness How to Enhance Cohesiveness Socio-Emotional CohesivenessSocio-Emotional Cohesiveness 1.Keep the team relatively small. 2.Increase the status and prestige of belonging. 3.Encourage interaction and cooperation. 4.Emphasize member,s common characteristics and interests. 5.Point out environmental threats to rally the team. Instrumental CohesivenessInstrumental Cohesiveness 1.Regularly update and clarify the team,s goals. 2.Give every team member a vital “piece of the action”. 3.Channel each team member,s special talents to the common goals. 4.Recognize and equitably reinforce every member,s contributions. 5.Frequently remind team members they need each other to get the job done. Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness: “A sense of we-ness helps team stick together.”

39 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran Attributes of high-performance high-performanceTeams Participative Leadership Leadership Aligned on Purpose HighCommunication CreativeTalents FutureFocused SharedResponsibility High-performance Teams RapidResponse Focused on Task


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