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Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight Group Dynamics.

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1 Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight Group Dynamics

2 Organizational Behavior Groups 1 Three or more freely interacting individuals Common identity 4 3 Collective goals Collective norms 2 Group – two (three) or more employees who interact with each other in such a manner that the behavior and/or performance of a member is influenced by the behavior and/or performance of other members. There are formal and informal groups.

3 Organizational Behavior Functions of Formal Groups Organizational FunctionsIndividual Functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness. 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.

4 Organizational Behavior Why do people form groups? Satisfaction of needs – security, social, esteem Proximity and attraction Group goals Economics

5 Organizational Behavior Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence Independence

6 Organizational Behavior Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development (continued) Individual Issues FormingStormingNormingPerforming “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?” Mutual Acceptance Communication & Decision-making Motivation & Productivity Control & Organization

7 Organizational Behavior Extended Tuckman Model De-norming. A natural erosion of standards of conduct. Group members drift in different directions. De-storming. A mirror opposite of the storming stage. An undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface. Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines. De-forming. Work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control. Performance declines rapidly because the whole job is no longer being done. 12-5

8 Organizational Behavior Cohesiveness Closeness or commonness of attitude, behavior, and performance. Acts as a force to remain in a group Allows a sense of belonging Cohesive groups involves individuals who are attracted to one another Group goals and member goals are compatible and clearly specified Group has a charismatic leader Strong reputation for completing task Group size is optimal Supportive

9 Organizational Behavior Role Behavior Roles: “Sets of behaviors that persons expect of occupants of a position.” Role overload: “Occurs when the sum total of what role senders expect of the focal person far exceeds what he or she is able to do.” Role conflict: “Experienced when different members of the role set expect different things of the focal person.” (Knowing what to do but not being able to do it.) Role ambiguity: “Occurs when members of the role set fail to communicate to the focal person expectations they have or information needed to perform the role, either because they do not have the information or because they deliberately withhold it.” (Not knowing what to do.)

10 Organizational Behavior Functional Roles Performed by Group Members Task RolesDescription Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent values Elaborator Promotes greater understanding Coordinator Pulls together ideas and suggestions Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural technician Performs routine duties Recorder Performs a “group memory” function

11 Organizational Behavior Functional Roles Performed by Group Members (Continued) Maintenance Roles Description Encourager Fosters group solidarity Harmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator Records comments on group processes/dynamics Follower Serves as a passive audience

12 Organizational Behavior More on Roles Role conflict –Person-role conflict –Intrarole conflict –Interrole conflict Results of Role Conflict

13 Organizational Behavior Social Norms Norm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.” Why Norms Are Enforced Help the group or organization survive Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity

14 Organizational Behavior A Contingency Model for Staffing Work Groups Improve performance of all work groups Train and develop new talent Maximize performance of best group(s) Staffing decision Concentrate talent Spread talent around Objective(s)

15 Organizational Behavior Evidence of Problems with Groups Social Loafing Groupthink Satisficing Shared/Unshared Information Group Polarization (the “Risky Shift”)

16 Organizational Behavior Why is Group Performance (sometimes) less than the sum of Individual Performance? Social loafing (individuals withhold effort) –Reduced by monitoring/evaluation –May be related to individual traits (collectivism vs. individualism)

17 Organizational Behavior Stepladder Technique for Avoiding Social Loafing Example of a Four-Person Group: –Two core group members work on problem. –Third member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by three-person discussion). –Fourth member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by four-person discussion and final decision making).

18 Organizational Behavior The Asch Experiments

19 Organizational Behavior Symptoms of Groupthink Invulnerability Inherent morality Rationalization Stereotyped views of opposition Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Peer pressure Mindguards

20 Organizational Behavior Preventing Groupthink Every group member a critical evaluator Avoid rubber-stamp decisions Different groups explore same problems Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts Assign role of devil’s advocate Rethink a consensus

21 Organizational Behavior Satisficing Groups often adopt the first alternative that is acceptable to all members rather than continuing to search for an optimal alternative

22 Organizational Behavior Shared/Unshared Information Shared Information Unshared Information Even though Individual Group Members have Unique Information, They tend to Discuss Information that is Shared

23 Organizational Behavior

24 Why Teams are Formed Enhanced productivity –Technical or functional skills –Problem solving and decision-making skills –Interpersonal skills Flattening organizations Need for flexibility and quicker decisions Workforce diversity Improved quality Increased customer satisfaction

25 Organizational Behavior Effective Team Requirements Top level commitment and goals Trust between managers and employees Taking risks and sharing information Time, resources, and commitment to training

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