2 1 Three or more freely interacting individuals GroupsGroup – two (three) or more employees who interact with each other in such a manner that the behavior and/or performance of a member is influenced by the behavior and/or performance of other members.There are formal and informal groups.1 Three or more freely interacting individualsCommon identity 43 Collective goalsCollective norms 2
3 Functions of Formal Groups Organizational FunctionsIndividual Functions1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers.1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness.5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.
4 Why do people form groups? Satisfaction of needs – security, social, esteemProximity and attractionGroup goalsEconomics
5 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development PerformingAdjourningNormingStormingFormingReturn to IndependenceDependence/ interdependenceIndependence
6 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development (continued) Individual IssuesFormingStormingNormingPerforming“How do I fit in?”“What’s my role here?”“What do the others expect me to do?”“How can I best perform myrole?”Group Issues“Why are we here?”“Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?”“Can we agree on roles and work as ateam?”“Can we do the job properly?”MutualAcceptanceCommunication &Decision-makingMotivation &ProductivityControl &Organization
7 Extended Tuckman Model 12-5Extended Tuckman ModelDe-norming. A natural erosion of standards of conduct. Group members drift in different directions.De-storming. A mirror opposite of the storming stage. An undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface. Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.De-forming. Work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control. Performance declines rapidly because the whole job is no longer being done.
8 CohesivenessCloseness or commonness of attitude, behavior, and performance.Acts as a force to remain in a groupAllows a sense of belongingCohesive groups involves individuals who are attracted to one anotherGroup goals and member goals are compatible and clearly specifiedGroup has a charismatic leaderStrong reputation for completing taskGroup size is optimalSupportive
9 Role BehaviorRoles: “Sets of behaviors that persons expect of occupants of a position.”Role overload: “Occurs when the sum total of what role senders expect of the focal person far exceeds what he or she is able to do.”Role conflict: “Experienced when different members of the role set expect different things of the focal person.” (Knowing what to do but not being able to do it.)Role ambiguity: “Occurs when members of the role set fail to communicate to the focal person expectations they have or information needed to perform the role, either because they do not have the information or because they deliberately withhold it.” (Not knowing what to do.)
10 Functional Roles Performed by Group Members Task Roles Description Initiator Suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver Clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent values Elaborator Promotes greater understanding Coordinator Pulls together ideas and suggestions Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Procedural technician Performs routine duties Recorder Performs a “group memory” function
11 Functional Roles Performed by Group Members (Continued) Maintenance Roles Description Encourager Fosters group solidarity Harmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper Encourages all group members to participate Standard setter Evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator Records comments on group processes/dynamics Follower Serves as a passive audience
12 More on Roles Role conflict Results of Role Conflict Person-role conflictIntrarole conflictInterrole conflictResults of Role Conflict
13 Social NormsNorm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.”Why Norms Are EnforcedHelp the group or organization surviveClarify or simplify behavioral expectationsHelp individuals avoid embarrassing situationsClarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity
14 A Contingency Model for Staffing Work Groups Objective(s)Spread talent aroundImprove performance of all work groupsTrain and develop new talentStaffingdecisionMaximize performance of best group(s)Concentrate talent
15 Evidence of Problems with Groups Social LoafingGroupthinkSatisficingShared/Unshared InformationGroup Polarization (the “Risky Shift”)
16 Social loafing (individuals withhold effort) Why is Group Performance (sometimes) less than the sum of Individual Performance?Social loafing (individuals withhold effort)Reduced by monitoring/evaluationMay be related to individual traits (collectivism vs. individualism)
17 Stepladder Technique for Avoiding Social Loafing Example of a Four-Person Group:Two core group members work on problem.Third member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by three-person discussion).Fourth member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by four-person discussion and final decision making).
19 Symptoms of Groupthink InvulnerabilityInherent moralityRationalizationStereotyped views of oppositionSelf-censorshipIllusion of unanimityPeer pressureMindguards
20 Preventing Groupthink Every group member a critical evaluatorAvoid rubber-stamp decisionsDifferent groups explore same problemsRely on subgroup debates and outside expertsAssign role of devil’s advocateRethink a consensus
21 SatisficingGroups often adopt the first alternative that is acceptable to all members rather than continuing to search for an optimal alternative
22 Shared/Unshared Information Even though IndividualGroup Members haveUnique Information, Theytend to Discuss Informationthat is SharedSharedInformationUnshared InformationUnshared Information
24 Why Teams are Formed Enhanced productivity Flattening organizations Technical or functional skillsProblem solving and decision-making skillsInterpersonal skillsFlattening organizationsNeed for flexibility and quicker decisionsWorkforce diversityImproved qualityIncreased customer satisfaction
25 Effective Team Requirements Top level commitment and goalsTrust between managers and employeesTaking risks and sharing informationTime, resources, and commitment to training