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© 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Dynamics Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Dynamics Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Dynamics Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Ch. 10 Learning Objectives 1.Identify the four sociological criteria of a group and discuss the impact of social networking on group dynamics. 2.Describe the five stages in Tuckman’s theory of group development, and discuss the threat of group decay. 3.Distinguish between role conflict and role ambiguity 4.Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations. 5.Distinguish between task and maintenance functions in groups. 10-2

3 Ch. 10 Learning Objectives 6.Summarize the practical contingency management implications for group size. 7.Discuss why managers need to carefully handle mixed-gender task groups. 8.Describe groupthink, and identify at least four of its symptoms 9.Define social loafing, and explain how managers can prevent it. 10-3

4 Key Social Skills Managers Need for Building Social Capital Ability to adapt to, or feel comfortable in, a wide range of social situations Social adaptability Ability to change others’ attitudes and/or their behavior in desired direction Persuasion and social influence Tactics designed to induce liking a favorable first impression by others Impression management Ability to perceive accurately the emotions, traits, motives and intentions of others Social perception DescriptionSocial Skill 10-4

5 Your Experience What types of groups have you belonged to? a.Class group projects b.Groups whose members share an common recreational interest or hobby c.Student organizations d.Other What made this experience rewarding? What made this experience challenging? 10-5

6 Sociological Criteria of a Group Common identity 4 1 Two or more Freely interacting individuals 3 Collective goals Collective norms

7 Value of Groups Why do individuals join groups? Why do organizations form groups? 10-7

8 Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational Functions 1)Accomplish complex, independent tasks beyond the capabilities of individuals 2)Generate new or creative ideas or solutions 3)Coordinate interdependent efforts 4)Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems 5)Implement complex decisions 6)Socialize and train newcomers 10-8

9 Formal Groups Fulfill Individual Functions 1)Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation 2)Develop, enhance and confirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity 3)Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality 4)Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness 5)Provide a problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal problems 10-9

10 Social Networking Revolution Social networking sites are: Breaking down silos Blurring the lines between formal and informal groups Enabling friendships between managers and subordinates What management challenges does this create? How can SNS’s be used to the organization’s benefit? Should managers be friends with direct reports? 10-10

11 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence Independence 10-11

12 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Individual Issues Forming StormingNormingPerforming “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?” 10-12

13 Test Your Knowledge True or False? 1.All groups go through the stages in this order and don’t regress to earlier stages. 2.Knowledge of these stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take appropriate action. 3.Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages. 4.Feedback becomes more general, less frequent, and more negative as teams progress through the stages. 5.Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient

14 Roles Defined Role expected behaviors for a given position Examples: Team Leader Devil’s Advocate Business Developer 10-14

15 A Role Episode Role Sender Perceived organizational/ group requirements Comparative evaluation of - Role expectations for focal person - Focal person’s behavior Focal Person Perceived role expectations Experienced role overload, role conflict, role ambiguity Constructive/destructive responses Role Modeling Communication of approval or need for change Feedback 10-15

16 Roles Defined Role Conflict: others have conflicting or inconsistent expectations Role Ambiguity: Confusion arising from not knowing what one is expected to do as the holder of a role. Role Overload: others’ expectations exceed one’s ability What is the impact of these outcomes? What can managers do about it? 10-16

17 Norms Norm shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior In what four ways are norms formed? 10-17

18 Four Reasons Norms are Enforced Group/organization survival Clarification of behavioral expectations Avoidance of embarrassment Clarification of central values/unique identity 10-18

19 Task Roles Initiator suggests new goals or ideas Information seeker/giver clarifies key issues Opinion seeker/giver clarifies pertinent values Elaborator promotes greater understanding through examples or exploration of implications Coordinator pulls together ideas and suggestions 10-19

20 Task Roles Orienter keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Evaluator tests group’s accomplishments with various criteria such as logic and practicality Energizer prods group Procedural technician performs routine duties Recorder performs a “group memory” function by documenting discussion and outcomes 10-20

21 Maintenance Roles Encourager fosters group solidarity by accepting and praising various points of view Harmonizer mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper encourages all group members to participate Standard setter evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator records and comments on group processes/dynamics Follower serves as a passive audience 10-21

22 Test Your Knowledge Karen, a manager, would like to assemble a group to make a difficult, complex decision. Ken, wants to form a group to brainstorm new product ideas. The optimal size for Karen’s and Ken’s groups, respectively, is: a.20-25, 4-5 b.10-15, c.3-5, 8-12 d.8-12,

23 Categories of Sexual Harassment  Repeated requests to go out after work or school Unwanted dating pressure  Obscene phone calls  Belittling the target’s competence Derogatory attitudes--personal  Obscene gestures not directed at target  Sex-stereotyped jokes Derogatory attitudes--impersonal Behavioral ExamplesCategory  Proposition for an affair Sexual propositions 10-23

24  Congratulatory hug Physical nonsexual contact Behavioral ExamplesCategory  Embracing the target  Kissing the target Physical sexual contact  Threatening punishment unless sexual favors are given  Sexual bribery Sexual coercion Categories of Sexual Harassment 10-24

25 Threats to Group Effectiveness Asch Effect Groupthink Social Loafing 10-25

26 The Asch Effect Standard Line Card Comparison Lines Card Asch Effect: the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition. ? 10-26

27 Asch Effect Since the 1950’s this effect has declined in the US Individualist cultures resist pressures to conform more than collectivistic cultures What are the implications of the Asch effect for managers? 10-27

28 Groupthink Groupthink: When you feel a high pressure to conform and agree and are unwilling to realistically view alternatives What are some of the reasons or factors that promote groupthink? What can be done to prevent groupthink? 10-28

29 Symptoms of Groupthink Lead to Defective Decision Making Symptoms of Groupthink  Invulnerability  Inherent morality  Rationalization  Stereotyped views of opposition  Self-censorship  Illusion of unanimity  Peer pressure  Mindguards Decision-making Defects 1)Few alternatives 2)No reexamination of preferred alternatives 3)No reexamination of rejected alternatives 4)Rejection of expert opinions 5)Selective bias of new information 6)No contingency plans 10-29

30 Social Loafing Social Loafing: decrease in individual effort as group size increases What factors contribute to social loafing? What actions could you take to prevent social loafing? 10-30

31 Test Your Knowledge A group of employees with accounting expertise needs to adapt their procedures in response to changes within the organization. The group decides to 1) hold each member accountable for a meaningful task and 2) to establish a process so that everyone openly expresses their opinion. The group was trying to prevent ____ and _____, respectively. a.Social loafing; Groupthink b.Role overload; social loafing c.Asch Effect; role ambiguity d.Groupthink; role overload 10-31


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