ElISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay Indicates whether a person has developed antibodies to the virus
Western blot or Immunofluorescence assay Used to test or HIV antigens, which indicates the virus is present Detectable in at least 95% of all patients in the first six months. False negative test can happen if AIDS antigen has not fully developed though.
How you are tested Blood sample Salvia swab Finger stick – Can be obtained by a prick of the finger – Will get results back in twenty minutes. – Also a sample will be sent to the lab for a formal blot test.
Where to get tested - - Testing can be done anonymously through the local health department and free of charge. - Personal physician - Home kits *Home access express HIV-1 test system *Only home test approved by the FDA *It is obtained by a dry blood sample the mailed to a lab to get results in two weeks.
Sexual transmission Transmission through blood Mother to child transmission For each route of transmission there are things that an individual can do to reduce or eliminate risk. HIV can be transmitted 3 ways:
By the end of 2003, about 1.1 million U.S. residents were living with HIV and ¼ of them did not know. Infections among men: 58% were acquired though male to male sexual contact. 20% though drug injection 6% through homosexual and drug involvement 16% through heterosexual sex Infections among women: 71% through Heterosexual sex 27% through drug use Infections among men: 58% were acquired though male to male sexual contact. 20% though drug injection 6% through homosexual and drug involvement 16% through heterosexual sex Infections among women: 71% through Heterosexual sex 27% through drug use
Anyone can be come infected, it is important to educate everyone about HIV and AIDS. It is especially important to educate children, women, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and sex users. Who need HIV prevention?
Abstain from sex or delay first sex Be faithful to one partner Use condoms (male or female) consistently and correctly Prevention through sexual transmission
Needle exchange – distribute clean needles – safely dispose of used ones Transfusion of infected blood – screening all blood supplies for the virus – heat-treating blood products where possible. – place some restrictions on who is eligible to donate Transmission through blood HIV infections among injection drug users declined by approximately 80% between 1988 and 2006.
tattooing and circumcision – routinely sterilizing equipment. – dispose of equipment after each use Medical procedures and other activities that involve contact with blood
HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and later through breastfeeding. – Prevent unwanted pregnancies – Use a course of antiretroviral drugs Can use during pregnancy, labor, and give to new born baby – A caesarean section reduces the baby’s exposure to its mother’s body fluids. – Do not breast feed Mother to child transmission studies have shown that mothers with HIV or AIDS who get good prenatal care and regularly take antiviral drugs during their pregnancy now have less than a 5% chance of passing HIV to their babies.
Why there are treatment difficulties: The disease inserts a copy of itself into the DNA this means the cell will treat the viruses genes as their own, and therefore they are safe from attacks from the immune system HIV/AIDS: Treatment
More treatment problems: HIV infects several types of cells – T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells among others In addition, the virus is always evolving – This makes it difficult because the virus is outpacing the science and financing efforts of scientists’ work in the past quarter-century.
Treatment Progress Although there is no cure for the HIV infection, significant progress as been made. About 25 drugs are out there to suppress HIV replication. Early treatment of certain programs can delay the onset of AIDS and significantly increase survival time.
Treatment Progress Continued… A recent analysis showed that one program increased survival time by 26.8 years for 30 year olds… 24.4 years for 40 year olds… And 14.6 years longer for 50 year olds
Treatment Pricing The price, however, of treating HIV/AIDS with modern drugs is not cheap. The estimated total lifetime cost for one, who is treating the disease for 24.1 years with modern treatment costs an average about $618,900.
Magic Johnson There are certain cases where people are surviving longer than the average, such as Magic Johnson, who is a former NBA star. He uses drugs made all around the world to prevent the virus from replicating. Magic Johnson, and others who can afford the best treatments who are affected, pay a substantial amount more than most.
Quackery and Fraud Suffering and deadly outcome of AIDS leads to unproven remedies and “cures” for victims. AIDS patients are extremely vulnerable to fraud because of the circumstance they are in; they will try anything to prolong their chances of survival. Health food companies produce vitamin concoctions that promote strengthening of the immune system. Expert quacks in arthritis, cancer, and heart disease have all turned to AIDS for money and ease of quackery.
“Cures” John Renner attended several meetings for groups promoting unorthodox treatments. He found: Blue-green algae (pond scum) BHT ( antioxidant used as food preservative) Pills used on mice that were given the AIDS virus Bottles of T-Cells Thumping of the thymus gland
Exploitation of Fear Some companies have capitalized on the fear of contracting the virus. Covers for public toilets and telephone receivers claiming to prevent transmission (AIDS can not be transmitted in this manner) Rubber dental dams for oral-genital sex (despite extremely low likelihood of transmission in this form)
T-UP In July 1999, three men were indicted on criminal charges of conspiring to commit violations of federal drug laws. Promoted “T-UP,” an aloe Vera concentrate claimed to be effective against cancer, AIDS, herpes, and other auto-immune disorders
T-UP (continued) Promoted by mass mailings including an audio tape entitled “There is Hope: You Do Not Have To Die!” and a brochure with the title “Boost Your Immune System.” Promoted on interstate radio, video tapes, word- of-mouth, telephone, and internet Intravenous administration cost patients or family members $12,000 for two-week treatment Sold 2 oz. bottles of “T-UP Aloe Juice” for $75.00 a bottle.
Health Food Retailer Experiment Consumer Health Education Council phone 41 stores, claiming to have a brother with AIDS seeking alternative treatment and that the brother was still having sex with his wife. All 41 stores claimed they had products to benefit both the brother and his wife. Vitamins (41 stores) Vitamin C (38) “Immune boosters” (38) Coenzyme Q10 (26) Geranium (26) Lecithin (19)
…and the most surprising Not one of the 41 stores that were called recommended abstinence or the use of condoms.
Campaign Against Quackery Health officials estimate that quacks defraud Americans in the area of $25 to $40 billion annually. Dr. Robert Windom spoke at the three day “National Health Fraud Conference” to try and enlist the help of health-care professionals and educators to fight against medical fraud. Every doctor, nurse, hospital administrator, and health care worker was encouraged to join the “army” they were looking to assemble.
HIV Testing Why Get Tested? – It is better to know your status – Put your mind to rest – Protect your partner – Begin treatment – Catching it early buys a lot of time
What if Test Results are Positive? – Antiretroviral drugs- Medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV – Western Medicine Antiretroviral drugs keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level slowing any weakening of the immune system
Alternatives – Alternative Methods and Beliefs Traditional Chinese medicine (includes herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage) Reiki (practitioners claim to channel healing energy through their palms) Spirituality and prayer
Common Misconceptions AIDS can spread through casual contact Sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS HIV only infects homosexual men and drug users You die from AIDs
How People Get it How People Prevent it Three main ways HIV is Transmitted – Sexual transmission – Transmission through blood – Mother-to-child transmission How to Prevent Transmission – Abstinence – Use of Protection – Stay away from injection drugs
Keep in Mind An estimated 33.4 people are living with HIV/AIDS in the world In total, an estimated 1,077,972 people have been diagnosed with AIDS in America since the beginning of the epidemic in 1970 An estimated 34,766 people are living with a diagnosis of the HIV infection