Presentation on theme: "Understanding Epidemics HIV/AIDS 1.What is HIV/AIDS?What is HIV/AIDS? 2.Studying HIV/AIDS?Studying HIV/AIDS? 3.Some common misconceptionsSome common misconceptions."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Epidemics HIV/AIDS 1.What is HIV/AIDS?What is HIV/AIDS? 2.Studying HIV/AIDS?Studying HIV/AIDS? 3.Some common misconceptionsSome common misconceptions 4.Key issues in understanding HIV/AIDSKey issues in understanding HIV/AIDS 5.Tackling HIV/AIDSTackling HIV/AIDS This powerpoint presentation contains an introduction to HIV/AIDS structured around the following 5 points. This will help you identify some of the key things to look for when using the website. NB. All small diagrams can be seen in bigger form by clicking on them. All are shown in more detail on the website.
1. What is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV] [AIDS]Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome A retro-virus which is carried in the blood stream and attacks CD4Cells which make up part of the body’s immune system. This means that a person who is infected with the HIV virus has a weaker immune system and is therefore less able to fight off infections. If the HIV virus is present in someone’s blood stream they are said to be HIV+. Once the number of CD4 cells falls below 200 then a person is considered to have AIDS rather than simply being classified as HIV+. AIDS is also classified by the presence of certain secondary infections such as oral thrush. More
1. What is HIV/AIDS? (Cont.) The HIV/AIDS virus doesn’t cause death itself. It weakens the immune system and so leaves the infected person susceptible to secondary infection by other illnesses. Common causes of death are pneumonia, and tuberculosis (TB). The recent increase in global TB cases is thought to be, in part, due to the association of TB with HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS can be transmitted by exchange of bodily fluids. This can be through heterosexual sex, homosexual (anal) sex, sharing of intravenous needles, infected blood transfusions, or can be passed from mother to child either in the womb or through breast feeding (this is called vertical transmission). Back to main menu Transmission Causes of death
2. Studying HIV/AIDS Back to main menu Why Study HIV/AIDS? Some problems with data AIDS isn’t always recorded as cause of death &/or people (especially in Africa) often die away from medical care. It is impossible to test everyone so data are often based on estimates. Stigma is still associated with HIV/AIDS in many countries so people are reluctant to be tested. HIV/AIDS is the leading epidemic killer The WHO estimated there were 2.9 million AIDS deaths in 2003 There are global variations in the impacts of HIV. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst affected region. There is no known Cure.
3. Some common misconceptions Back to main menu HIV/AIDS is a disease associated with gay men and IV drug users. ARVs (Anti- retroviral drugs) cure AIDS. FALSE! As the graph below shows, since late 1998, heterosexual transmission has been the main cause of new infections in the UK. (Click graph to see bigger graph) HIV/AIDS transmission can be prevented by using the contraceptive pill. FALSE. The contraceptive pill does not provide protection against HIV or other STIs. FALSE. ARVs can prolong the life of someone who’s HIV+ but do not cure the disease
4. Key Issues Back to main menu New Disease Uneven risk Major development issue for LEDCs Spatial variations First described in California in 1981 Origins unknown (3 different theories). Sexually active people age are highest risk group. Women more at risk than men. GLOBAL: variations in prevalence, impacts, and main means of transmission LOCAL: variations between rural & urban areas in Africa. MIGRATION: circular migration key factor in national spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa HIV has social and economic impacts HIV worsens existing food security problems especially in rural areas LEDCs have limited access to ARVs (click graph to see bigger version)
5. Tackling HIV/AIDS Back to main menu Care Behavioural change Development: a joined up approach Therapies Provision of care to take pressure off families Education to overcome stigma and prejudice Continue to work to increase ARV availability in LEDCs. Need to tackle poverty and HIV together Creation of joined up programmes to incorporate HIV/AIDS in with development ARV use in USA proven to prolong life Encouraging people to limit the number of sexual partners Encouraging people to get tested and be aware of their HIV status Creation of needle exchange schemes Distributing condoms & teaching people how to use them (Click graph to see bigger version)
Transmission in the UK Back to ‘Some common Misconceptions’
Who’s at risk? Back to ‘Key Issues’
Impact of ARVs in the USA Back to ‘Tackling HIV/AIDS’