Presentation on theme: "Facts About HIV/AIDS What Is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infects human cells and uses the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow."— Presentation transcript:
Facts About HIV/AIDS What Is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infects human cells and uses the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow and reproduce. HIV causes AIDS
HIV Infection and Aids Terms Pathogen – germ that causes disease Lymphocytes – white blood cells (wbc) fight pathogens – wbc multiply when pathogens enter the body B Cells – wbc that produce antibodies (special protein that helps fight infection) Helper T cells – tell B cells to produce antibodies
HIV Transmission through exposed blood vessels in small cuts or cracks in mucous membranes Having sex with infected person Multiple sexual partners Sex with prostitute Having other STD’s Sharing needles (drugs, tattoos, and piercing) Contact with blood, body fluids, mucous membranes or broken skin of infected person (sharing toothbrush or razor)
HIV Transmission through exposed blood vessels in small cuts or cracks in mucous membranes Blood Transfusion Tissue transplant (organ donation) Born to a mother infected with HIV
Ways HIV Is Not Transmitted Closed mouth kissing Hugging Holding or Shaking Hands Coughing/Sneezing Sharing food/utensils Sharing towels/combs Sharing toilets/water fountains Sharing pencils/pens Being bitten by insects Donating blood Eating food prepared by infected person Attending school Using phone/computer Swimming in a pool Using sports/pe equipment
Reducing the Risk of HIV Infection Abstain from Sex Avoid open mouth kissing with infected person Have a monogamous relationship Do not share needles Follow Universal Precautions – treat all human blood and bodily fluids as if they are contaminated. Make sure your dentist/doctor sterilize equipment between patients.
Window Period of HIV When to get tested for HIV –3 months after possible exposure –If negative after 3 months, safe to assume you do not have the virus.
HIV TESTS ELISA and Western Blot Test Home Access HIV Test is approved by the FDA. The test kit can be found at most drug stores at a cost of $45-70.
HIV TESTS ELISA – Enzyme Immunoassay – screens for presence of HIV antibodies in the blood. If present, the test is repeated. If positive, a Western Blot Test is run Western Blot Test – detects HIV antibodies and confirms the results of the EIA
HIV TESTS Positive Western Blot Test – –RNA Test – (viral load test) – shows how many copies of the virus are circulating in the blood –CD4 Test – looks at the number of white blood cells in a sample of blood
Home HIV TEST Drug Stores, Internet, newspaper, and magazines FDA Approved –Requires spot of dried blood –Mailed to an approved lab –99% accurate – results in about 2 weeks
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -Weakens the Immune System -Opportunistic Infections -Once infected with HIV (7 – 10 years) until it becomes AIDS
Opportunistic Infection Kaposi's sarcoma cancerous tumor of the connective tissue Thrush –fungal infection of mucous Membranes of the tongue and mouth
HIV Statistics AIDS is the deadliest disease in Human history More than 25 million people worldwide have died / 500,000+ Americans 40 million worldwide currently have HIV/AIDS
HIV STATISTICS Approximately 12 million cases of HIV/AIDS are 15 – 24 year olds Half of new cases are young people 7,000 new cases reported every day
Center for Disease Control and Prevention Estimates: –25% of people infected in the US do not know they are infected
HIV – African American 1 in 16 black men will be diagnosed with HIV infection 1 in 30 black women will be diagnosed with HIV leading cause of death in black women ages 25-34 in the U.S., AIDS is the 3rd and 4th leading causes of death in black women ages 35-44 and 45-54 years old 2007 - African Americans accounted for almost half (46%) of people living with a diagnosis of HIV infection
HIV - Hispanic/Latino 1 in 36 Hispanic/Latino men will be diagnosed with HIV 1 in 106 Hispanic/Latina women. 2008 - Hispanics/Latinos accounted for more than 19% of the 42,439 new diagnoses of HIV infection
Pregnancy and HIV Mother with HIV: transmitted during pregnancy, during labor and delivery (most common), or during breast feeding. less of a chance of passing HIV to your baby - cesarean delivery (a C-section) Mothers who have HIV and who are not treated and who do not breastfeed have about a 25% chance of passing HIV onto their babies. antiretroviral drugs can reduce this chance to 2% or less.
Pregnancy and HIV During pregnancy, the mother's antibodies are passed on to her baby. Babies will test positive for HIV antibodies at first. This doesn't mean the baby is infected Babies keep the mother's antibodies until they can make their own, which happens between 6 and 18 months of age.
Pregnancy and HIV Not infected baby - will lose the mother's antibodies and start to test negative for HIV sometime between 6 and 18 months of age. Infected with HIV, lose the mother's antibodies, but will start to make antibodies to HIV. The baby will test positive and continue to test positive for HIV.
Treatment of HIV No Cure Drugs help slow the growth of HIV Treat some symptoms of opportunistic infections (pneumonia and types of cancers) Combo of drugs- Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) 2006 FDA approved a once daily single dose pill treament.