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Ask: What do you know about HIV/AIDS?
Do: Write responses on flip chart; be sure to write down exactly what is said. Document at least 5 things. Goal: To assess the knowledge level of the group. Depending on responses, you may want to adjust the training ahead. If a myth or misconception is brought up that is not covered ahead, be sure to address it now.
Basic facts about HIV/AIDS
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS HIV/AIDS is treatable, but not curable It is estimated that 1 in 20 people in D.C. are living with HIV You can’t tell by looking if a person is living with HIV, the only way to know is by taking an HIV antibody test.
The 4 Fluids Blood Semen Breast Milk Vaginal Fluids
These are the four fluids that transmit HIV. The key to protecting yourself from infection is to avoid these four bodily fluids. Do: Clarify that semen includes “pre-cum” and the ejaculation. Even if it does not come up, please point out that no other fluids transmit HIV.
Transmitting HIV HIV is transmitted when one or more of the four fluids is transferred from one person to another. The most common ways HIV is transmitted is by: Unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex Sharing needles Breastfeeding from infected mother to baby
Preventing HIV: Sharing Needles/Breastfeeding
Needles should never be shared. When getting tattoos or piercings, make sure that new needles and new ink bottles are used. Injection drug users should never share works. Works can be cleaned using bleach and water. Mothers living with HIV should not breastfeed babies; prenatal care can help reduce the chance that babies of HIV-infected mothers are born with HIV. Do: Explain how sharing needles puts people at risk for contracting HIV. Be sure to discuss how needles used for medications (insulin) can also be a risk. Sharing needles is never a good idea.
Preventing HIV: Oral, Anal & Vaginal Sex
Using condoms correctly and consistently will reduce the risk of contracting HIV through anal and vaginal sex. Using condoms and other latex barriers (like dental dams) will reduce the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex. Ask: Ask the group what they know about condoms. Dispel any myths or misconceptions immediately. Discuss the importance of latex condoms and using water-based lube. Don’t forget to talk about how condoms should be stored.
Using Condoms Correctly
Check expiration date Check for air pocket Open at corner Pinch the tip Roll down to the base of the erect penis After sex, hold base and withdraw while penis is erect Roll off and tie knot in used condom Discard in trash can Do: Using a penis model, demonstrate the steps to using a condom correctly. Give each person a condom and walk the group through using the condom correctly.
The Great Condom Race ACTIVITY: It’s a race! Divide the group into 2 teams, give each a condom and have them line up. Each team will need one penis model. Starting at the beginning of the line, each person must go through the steps to using a condom correctly before passing the penis model to the next person. (If any steps are out of place, give the participant another condom and tell them to start over.) The first team to have every person complete the steps correctly wins! Goal: The goal of this activity to demonstrate the steps to using a condom in a fun way.
Using the female condom
Do: Introduce the female condom as an alternative to the male condom. Briefly discuss how it works and distribute handout about the device. Pass around at least one “female condom” so that participants can see/feel it. Be sure to mention that the female condom can be used anally if the inner ring is removed. If you have extra time, do a female condom demonstration with your hand or a vagina model.
Questions? STOP. This is the end of the 30-minute version of the HIV 101. Only proceed beyond this slide if you are doing the 60 or 90 minute version. Do: Take 5 minutes to answer any questions on any of the topics that have been covered thus far. Be sure to address any “parking lot” items that have come up during the workshop.
How do you ensure you will never catch HIV?
Do: Explain what abstinence means. Point out that sex always carries risks and that condoms can only reduce the risks. ACTIVITY: Divide the group into small groups and have them brainstorm and create a list of activities that a couple could do together that would not put them at risk for HIV. Hints: The list could include things like cuddling, holding hands, phone sex, etc. Goal: To allow participants to think about fun activities they could do with their partner that would not put them at risk for HIV. This list provides participants with real alternatives when they are presented with a risky situation in the future. Abstaining from sex means not participating in sex at all. Abstinence is the only way to ensure they you will never contract HIV. Condoms reduce the risk for HIV, but they do not eliminate the risks altogether.
Where did HIV come from? Do: Facilitate a discussion on the origin of HIV/AIDS. Begin the discussion by asking “where did HIV come from?” Write down responses on flip chart paper. Correct myths and misconceptions immediately.
The origin of HIV HIV is believed to have originated in non-human primates in sub-Saharan Africa and was transferred to humans late in the 19th or early in the 20th century. HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS = Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Do: Explain the origin of HIV. Introduce what each letter of HIV and AIDS stand for. Be sure to point out that immunodeficiency means weak immune system and that a syndrome is a system or collection of conditions working together. When explaining the origin of the HIV virus, be sure to point out that mode of transmission remains unclear. Don’t make assumptions about how the virus crossed over; just point out that the virus transferred from monkeys to humans. It is also important to note that no matter the origin of HIV, it is here now and prevention is key.
HIV attacks the body’s immune system
The immune system is the body’s natural defense against disease and infections White blood cells help fight infections HIV attacks and destroys T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell (also known as CD4 cells) HIV replicates itself and attacks more T-cells to weaken the immune system so that it no longer functions Do: Explain how the immune system works and how HIV attacks the immune system. Be sure to mention that HIV effects every cell and organ in the body, but that it uses white blood cells to replicate itself. Transition to the next slide.
This graph shows a T-cell (blue) being attacked by HIV (green)
This graph shows a T-cell (blue) being attacked by HIV (green). Use this graph to reinforce how HIV attacks T-cells and weakens the body’s immune system.
Questions? STOP. This is the end of the 60-minute version of the HIV 101. Only proceed beyond this slide if you are doing the 90 minute version. Do: Answer any questions about previously presented material and address any “parking lot” items.
Do: Explain the state of HIV/AIDS in the District
Do: Explain the state of HIV/AIDS in the District. Explain why the disease is disproportionately impacting wards 6, 7 and 8. To sure to remind participants how poor educational systems, poverty, crime, stigma, fear and cultural norms contribute to social diseases like HIV/AIDS.
Sexual Risk Behaviors Among District of Columbia High School Students, Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007, N= 944 Do: Point out that DC youth report a higher level of sex, sexual partners and an earlier sexual debut when compared to their peers nationally. This is information to reinforce the point that outreach and education are crucial.
What do you know about HIV antibody testing?
Do: Facilitate a dialogue about HIV testing. Begin the discussion by asking, “what do you know about HIV antibody testing?” Document responses on the flip chart and be sure to correct myths and misconceptions. Explain that all HIV tests are searching for HIV antibodies in the body and not HIV itself. Be sure to say “HIV antibody test” and not “HIV test.”
How HIV testing works All HIV tests look for HIV antibodies
HIV antibodies appear in the body anywhere from 2 to 12 weeks following transmission (this period of time is called the window period) If HIV antibodies are discovered, it is called being “reactive” or “HIV positive.” If no HIV antibodies are found, it is called being “non-reactive” or “HIV negative.” All HIV positive results require a confirmatory blood test. HIV testing at MTA is free, painless and confidential. Do: Explain how HIV testing works. Be sure to fully explain the “window period.” Show participants the Oraquick testing device and conduct a mock swab of your own mouth for demonstration. Do not conduct a test with your specimen. Take your specimen and all materials with you. DO NOT put specimen in the trash can.
Do you know where to get free condoms and free HIV testing?
Do: Ask participants if they know where to get free condoms and free HIV testing. Introduce “RealTalkDC.” ACTIVITY: Ask participants to take out their cell phone and text “REALTALK” to
Do: Direct participants to the RealTalkDC website for more resources and information. Distribute supplemental handouts.
Questions? Answer any questions on materials contained in the HIV 101. Address parking lot issues. And ask if there are any other questions about items not contained in this HIV 101.
651 Pennsylvania Avenue SE Washington, D. C. 20003 202. 543. 9355 www
651 Pennsylvania Avenue SE Washington, D.C Do: Briefly describe the services that MTA provides, be sure to include: Freestyle, HIV antibody testing, Outreach and Capacity Building training. Thank participants for attending.
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