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Chapter 11 Liberation: African Americans and the Civil War

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Liberation: African Americans and the Civil War"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Liberation: African Americans and the Civil War

2 I. Lincoln’s Aims Preserve the Union Everything else secondary
Especially concerned about the border states Call for 75,000 volunteers Black volunteers rejected

3 II. Black Men Volunteer and Are Rejected
Fate of Union tied to issue of slavery Fate of slavery tied to the outcome of war Black people understood before northerners Anglo-African newspaper New York, Philadelphia, Boston Black men offered their services

4 III. Union Policies toward Confederate Slaves
No coherent policy to deal with Union military commanders More concern for slave owner’s interests

5 “Contraband” General Benjamin Butler Fortress Monroe, May 1861
Refused to return three runaway slaves “Contraband” Enemy property First Confiscation Act, August 1861 John C. Fremont General David Hunter

6 Lincoln’s Initial Position
Reluctant to move against slavery, 1861 Border state loyalty Supported compensated emancipation-colonization Wanted to end slavery in border states, April 1862 Warned border states to accept compensation or risk getting nothing, July 1862

7 Lincoln Moves toward Emancipation
Victory and Union tied to slavery issue “Strike at the heart of the rebellion” Tells his cabinet, summer 1862 William Seward warns Lincoln to wait Montgomery Blair feared fall elections

8 Lincoln Delays Emancipation
Waited for a victory on the battlefield Northern defeats, spring and summer 1862 The Peninsula Campaign Seven Pines Seven Days’ Second Battle of Bull Run Antietam Justification for announcing emancipation

9 Black People Reject Colonization
Would not retreat from colonization Liberia Haiti Black people not interested

10 IV. Preliminary Emancipation
White southerners ridiculed it Many white northerners had little enthusiasm Antiblack riots Northern Democrats almost all opposed Denounced Lincoln and Republicans Most black people gratified

11 V. Emancipation Proclamation
Limited to areas still in rebellion Did not include border states Changes war goals Preserve the Union Make people free

12 Effects of Proclamation on the South
Ended chance of foreign recognition Encouraged Slaves to flee Slaves to resist

13 VI. Black Men Fight for the Union
Emancipation Proclamation Authorized black men to enlist Union defeats and the need for manpower Thomas Wentworth Higginson Robert Gould Shaw

14 Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.)
Discrimination and hostility Segregated units White officers Often held racist beliefs Lower pay scale White privates $13/month Black privates $10/month

15 Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.)
Combat Suffered disproportionately more casualties Battery Wagner William H. Carney Olustee The Crater

16 VII. Confederate Reaction to Black Soldiers
Enraged Refused to recognize black men as soldiers Treat as rebellious slaves General Order Number 11 Fort Pillow Massacre Union response Union commanders angry

17 VIII. Black Men in the Union Navy
Tradition of serving in the U.S. Navy, 1790s Integrated Early 19th century many black sailors Attempts to ban them from the navy

18 IX. Liberators, Spies, and Guides
Black men and women Robert Smalls Harriet Tubman Mary Elizabeth Bowser John Henry Woodson

19 X. Violent Opposition to Black People
New York City Draft Riot, July 1863 Draft Irish men angry Black men had replaced Irish stevedores, June 1863 Rich white northerners could purchase an exemption Riot lasted four days Colored Orphan Asylum Churches Republican and abolitionists houses destroyed

20 Violent Opposition to Black People (cont.)
Union troops and slaves Often treated slaves horribly Rapes and assaults were not uncommon Others found compassion for enslaved people “I have no heart in this war if the slaves cannot be made free,” a Union soldier wrote.

21 XI. Refugees Thousands of black people escaped bondage
Some followed Union armies Others struck out on their own Faced re-enslavement or execution if caught

22 XII. Black People and the Confederacy
Confederacy based on defense of slavery Benefited from the labors of bonds people Toiled in fields Worked in factories Permitted more white men to serve in military

23 Black People and the Confederacy (cont.)
Impressment of black people Military demands for manpower Slave owners contributed slave labor Built fortifications Government first asked then compelled Registration and enrollment of free black people military labor “Twenty nigger law” Exempted men who owned twenty slaves from draft

24 Black People and the Confederacy (cont.)
Confederates enslave free black people Davis counter proclamation “All free negroes shall be placed on the slave status and be deemed to be chattels. . . forever.” Ordered Confederate armies to capture free black people in the North and enslave them. Robert E. Lee, Pennsylvania 1863

25 Black Confederates Free black people volunteered services
Show loyalty and gain white acceptance Re-enslavement concerns Southern leaders generally ignored offers unless for menial labor

26 Black Confederates (cont.)
Small number of black men fight for CSA Some black civilians profit if South wins John Wilson Buckner William Ellison

27 Black Enlistments General Patrick Cleburne recommends, early 1864
President Davis cease and desist order Most southerners considered arming slaves appalling Defied southern assumptions “If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong.”--Howell Cobb March 1865 Confederate Congress voted to enlist 300,000 Receive same pay as white soldiers Slaves freed only with consent of owners and state agreed

28 XIII. Conclusion 185,000 black soldiers and sailors served in the Union military Most had been former slaves Almost 40,000 died in combat or of disease during the war Abraham Lincoln and the shift in public attitudes White man’s war Colonization Enlistment Appreciation

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