2Antietam & Emancipation On your notes worksheet, answer the following question: What does “emancipation” mean?
3Antietam & Emancipation Emancipation – The act of freeing
4The War So FarThe war had not been going well for the Union armies around Washington, D.C. The Union had lost every major battle in which it had fought in 1861 and 1862.
5The War So FarThe Confederacy was hoping that Great Britain and France might help them in the war, giving the Confederacy an advantage.
6Preserving the Union or The War So FarWhat was the war about?Preserving the Union orFreeing the Slaves?The stated purpose of the war by the United States was to save the Union. However, abolitionists and Republicans were pressuring Lincoln to making freeing the slaves a goal of the war.
7Lincoln’s Problems- 1862Britain and France had begun to negotiate with the ConfederacyLincoln was harshly criticized for not freeingthe slaves (Republicans/Abolitionists)Lacked the Constitutional authority to free the slavesNortherners felt slavery was helping the war effort in the south.He needed a Union victory so the announcement would not seem like an act of desperation
9United States Colored Troops “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slaver,...I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.”The War Department decided that African American soldiers would be placed in all African American units commanded by white officers.
10AntietamActivity Read the Battle of Antietam Summary. Fill in the flow map as a timeline for that battle.
11AntietamThe result of the Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg, as the Confederates called it), the Confederate army left Maryland and went back into Virginia, allowing the Union to claim a victory.
13EmancipationAbraham Lincoln now had a victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
14EmancipationHowever, Lincoln had some challenges to overcome before he wrote the Emancipation Proclamation.
15EmancipationHis first challenge was that the U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Government.
16EmancipationLincoln used his background as a lawyer to come up with a solution more or less based on the following questions that I would like you to answer:
17EmancipationQuestion: What did slave owners legally consider their slaves to be?
18EmancipationAnswer: Slaves were considered to be property.
19EmancipationQuestion: What happens to property that armies capture from their enemy during a war?Image courtesy Library of Congress
20EmancipationAnswer: The property captured (called contraband) belongs to the army that captured it and its government.
21EmancipationActivity Look at your excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation. Let’s read the second and sixth paragraph together.Image courtesy Library of Congress
22"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.Jan. 11863Only Slaves in the confederate statesThe Union Government will support them.Image courtesy Library of Congress
23And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.because ofAlready saidRebellion statesFrom now onslavesImage courtesy Library of Congress
24EmancipationThe war was no longer just about preserving the union, it was also about freeing the slaves.
25The Union demonstrated its ability to fight and win against the Confederate army. In addition, most Europeans did not like slavery. Therefore, now that the war was about freeing the slaves, they decided not to get involved with either the Union or the Confederacy.Since the war was now about freeing the slaves, the Europeans decided to not get involved with either the Union or the Confederacy.
26Facts about the Emancipation Proclamation The Battle of Antietam provided the necessary Union victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.It did not free any slaves in Union states, it only freed slaves in rebel statesSlaves were encouraged to runaway, destroying the Southern economyBritain and France were forced to stay out of the warEscaped slaves were allowed to join the Union armyIt changed the focus of the war.
27United States Colored Troops Lincoln had some other challenges. He wanted African American men interested in joining the United States military to be able to do so. However, some white, Union soldiers did not want to serve with African American soldiers. There were also concerns about how well African Americans would fight since most of them did not have any military service.
28United States Colored Troops In the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln addressed the enlistment of African Americans in the United States armed forces. Activity In paragraph #8 Lincoln discusses them being accepted into the military. Let’s read it together.Image courtesy Library of Congress
29And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.People physically capablemanThe militaryImage courtesy Library of Congress
30United States Colored Troops The War Department decided that African American soldiers would be placed in all African American units commanded by white officers.
31United States Colored Troops Activity Read the excerpt from General Order 143, which created the “United States Colored Troops” (USCT).Image courtesy National Archives
32I -- A Bureau is established in the Adjutant General's Office EXCERPT:I -- A Bureau is established in the Adjutant General's Officefor the record of all matters relating to the organization ofColored Troops….VI -- Colored troops may be accepted by companies, to beafterward consolidated in battalions and regiments by theAdjutant General. The regiments will be numbered seriatim, in the order in which they are raised, the numbers to bedetermined by the Adjutant General. They will be designatedRegiment of U. S. Colored Troops." (U.S.C.T.)Chief Administrative Officer of the army’sGovernment dept.groups of soldiersBrought togetherChief Administrative Officer of the armydecidednamedImage courtesy National Archives
33African Americans & the War By Spring 1863 black soldiers were fighting along side whites- the 54th Massachusetts infantry (“Glory”) became known for their bravery in battle.
34United States Colored Troops Question: What do you think were some advantages for the United States in having African Americans serve in the military?
35United States Colored Troops Answer: African Americans joined the United States military in large numbers. This led to a larger army, one of the deciding factors in the United States defeating the Confederacy.
36United States Colored Troops African Americans were now directly involved in their own emancipation.
37Key items to remember from today’s lesson The “bloodiest” day in American history was the Battle of Antietam, Maryland.The Union “victory” at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.Great Britain and France remained neutral and did not enter the war on the side of the Confederacy.The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the Confederate States (Eventually all states would free their slaves)With African Americans joining the armed forces, the United States had a greater advantage over the Confederate States because of its number of soldiers and sailors.