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Chapter 11 African Americans and the Civil War ( )

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1 Chapter 11 African Americans and the Civil War (1861-1865)

2 Who’s Who in the Civil War
The North = Union, Yankees (blue) Abraham Lincoln (President) Numerous leaders, but Ulysses S. Grant at end of war Strategy: Protect the Union (as in USA) Gain control of Southern coast, West via Mississippi River, and in Deep South Implement Anaconda Plan to squeeze South

3 Who’s Who in the Civil War
The South = Confederates, Rebels (grey) Jefferson Davis (President) Numerous leaders, but Robert E. Lee at end of war Strategy: Fight a “War of Attrition” Get England or France to help due to cotton needs Wear North down

4 Section 1 - The Civil War Begins
Lincoln’s Aim - Preserve the Union! Helping/hindering black people was secondary Especially concerned about the border states – keep them with Union cause Call for 75,000 volunteers to serve for 3 months Black volunteers rejected


6 Essential Questions At the start of the Civil War, what was Abraham Lincoln’s primary objective and how did he work to achieve it?

7 Union Progress ( )

8 Section 1 - Black Men Volunteer and Are Rejected
Black population realized that Fate of Union was tied to issue of slavery And the fate of slavery was tied to the outcome of war They understood this before northerners New York, Philadelphia, Boston made various attempts to offer services Prepped to be ready whenever called upon to serve

9 Section 1 - Union Policies toward Confederate Slaves
Slaves started liberating themselves as soon as the war started US Gov’t had no specific policy to deal with these slaves BUT…Union leaders usually more concerned for slave owner’s interests

10 African-American Troops Served as Teamsters
These African-American troops served as teamsters for the Union Army in Virginia. Most Northern white people—including political leaders—believed that black men lacked the courage and fortitude for combat. They expected black men would do little more as soldiers than haul freight, erect fortifications, serve guard duty, and prepare food.

11 “Contraband” – Fortress Monroe (VA – May 1861)
General Benjamin Butler refused to return three runaway slaves under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, because Virginia was no longer part of the USA! Slaves were declared as contraband (means enemy property) Leads to First Confiscation Act, August 1861 (clarifies slave status)

12 A Ride for Liberty - The Fugitive Slaves
SOURCE: Oil on board, The Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Miss Gwendolyn O.L. Conkling. A Ride for Liberty—The Fugitive Slaves, On March 23, 1862, artist Eastman Johnson was with General George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac near Manassas, Virginia. Just before dawn, Johnson witnessed a family of three fleeing slavery, and he was prompted to commit the episode to canvas.

13 “Contraband” – Reaction by Black Leaders
Upset that Blacks could not enlist Also upset that the issue of slavery ignored General David Hunter abolished slavery in areas of SC, GA, and FL Lincoln revokes order and reprimands him

14 Section 2 – Lincoln and Emancipation
Lincoln’s initial position = reluctant to move against slavery Wanted to keep border state loyalty He supported compensated emancipation-colonization Black Americans, abolitionists, and growing number of Republicans were upset that slavery wasn’t abolished by Lincoln!

15 Section 2 - Lincoln Moves toward Emancipation
Realizes that victory in war and the reestablishment of the Union were tied to slavery issue Emancipation would “Strike at the heart of the rebellion” Tells his cabinet, summer 1862 Warned to wait for major victory so it does not look like a desperate move by a losing leader

16 Section 2 - Lincoln Delays Emancipation
Waited for a major victory on the battlefield Did not come until September 1862 at Antietam

17 Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War”
September 17, 1862 23,000 casualties in one day!

18 Essential Questions How did Lincoln’s policies on slavery change as the Civil War continued?



21 Emancipation Proclamation
Limited to areas still in rebellion Did not include border states Changes war goals Preserve the Union Make people free

22 Effects of Proclamation on the South
Ended chance of foreign recognition Encouraged Slaves to flee Slaves to resist

23 Black Men Fight for the Union
Emancipation Proclamation Authorized black men to enlist Union was losing the war and needed manpower Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Mass. Regiment

24 Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.)
Discrimination and hostility Segregated units White officers Often held racist beliefs Lower pay scale White privates $13/month Black privates $10/month

25 Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.)
Combat Suffered disproportionately more casualties Fort Wagner Olustee The Crater

26 Confederate Reaction to Black Soldiers
Enraged Refused to recognize black men as soldiers Treat as rebellious slaves General Order Number 11 Fort Pillow Massacre Union response Union commanders angry

27 Black Men in the Union Navy
Tradition of serving in the U.S. Navy, 1790s Integrated

28 IX. Liberators, Spies, and Guides
Black men and women Robert Smalls Harriet Tubman Mary Elizabeth Bowser John Henry Woodson

29 X. Violent Opposition to Black People
New York City Draft Riot, July 1863 Draft Irish men angry Rich white northerners could purchase an exemption Riot lasted four days

30 Violent Opposition to Black People (cont.)
Union troops and slaves Often treated slaves horribly Others found compassion for enslaved people “I have no heart in this war if the slaves cannot be made free,” a Union soldier wrote.

31 XI. Refugees Thousands of black people escaped bondage
Some followed Union armies Others struck out on their own Faced re-enslavement or execution if caught

32 XII. Black People and the Confederacy
Confederacy based on defense of slavery Benefited from the labors of bonds people Toiled in fields Worked in factories

33 Black People and the Confederacy (cont.)
Impressment of black people Military demands for manpower Slave owners contributed slave labor Government first asked then compelled Registration and enrollment of free black people military labor “Twenty nigger law” Exempted men who owned twenty slaves from draft

34 Black People and the Confederacy (cont.)
Confederates enslave free black people “All free negroes shall be placed on the slave status and be deemed to be chattels. . . forever.” Ordered Confederate armies to capture free black people in the North and enslave them. Robert E. Lee, Pennsylvania 1863

35 Black Confederates Free black people volunteered services
Show loyalty and gain white acceptance Southern leaders generally ignored offers unless for menial labor

36 Black Confederates (cont.)
Small number of black men fight for CSA Some black civilians profit if South wins John Wilson Buckner William Ellison

37 Black Enlistments General Patrick Cleburne recommends, early 1864
President Davis cease and desist order Most southerners considered arming slaves appalling Defied southern assumptions “If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong.”--Howell Cobb

38 One week before war ended.
March 1865 Confederate Congress voted to enlist 300,000 Receive same pay as white soldiers Slaves freed only with consent of owners and state agreed One week before war ended.

39 XIII. Conclusion 185,000 black soldiers and sailors served in the Union military Most had been former slaves Almost 40,000 died in combat or of disease during the war Abraham Lincoln and the shift in public attitudes White man’s war Colonization Enlistment Appreciation

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