Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 African Americans and the Civil War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 African Americans and the Civil War (1861-1865)
2Who’s Who in the Civil War The North = Union, Yankees (blue)Abraham Lincoln (President)Numerous leaders, but Ulysses S. Grant at end of warStrategy: Protect the Union (as in USA)Gain control of Southern coast, West via Mississippi River, and in Deep SouthImplement Anaconda Plan to squeeze South
3Who’s Who in the Civil War The South = Confederates, Rebels (grey)Jefferson Davis (President)Numerous leaders, but Robert E. Lee at end of warStrategy: Fight a “War of Attrition”Get England or France to help due to cotton needsWear North down
4Section 1 - The Civil War Begins Lincoln’s Aim - Preserve the Union!Helping/hindering black people was secondaryEspecially concerned about the border states – keep them with Union causeCall for 75,000 volunteers to serve for 3 monthsBlack volunteers rejected
8Section 1 - Black Men Volunteer and Are Rejected Black population realized thatFate of Union was tied to issue of slaveryAnd the fate of slavery was tied to the outcome of warThey understood this before northernersNew York, Philadelphia, Boston made various attempts to offer servicesPrepped to be ready whenever called upon to serve
9Section 1 - Union Policies toward Confederate Slaves Slaves started liberating themselves as soon as the war startedUS Gov’t had no specific policy to deal with these slavesBUT…Union leaders usually more concerned for slave owner’s interests
10African-American Troops Served as Teamsters These African-American troops served as teamsters for the Union Army in Virginia. Most Northern white people—including political leaders—believed that black men lacked the courage and fortitude for combat. They expected black men would do little more as soldiers than haul freight, erect fortifications, serve guard duty, and prepare food.
11“Contraband” – Fortress Monroe (VA – May 1861) General Benjamin Butler refused to return three runaway slaves under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, because Virginia was no longer part of the USA!Slaves were declared as contraband (means enemy property)Leads to First Confiscation Act, August 1861 (clarifies slave status)
12A Ride for Liberty - The Fugitive Slaves SOURCE: Oil on board, The Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Miss Gwendolyn O.L. Conkling.A Ride for Liberty—The Fugitive Slaves, On March 23, 1862, artist Eastman Johnson was with General George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac near Manassas, Virginia. Just before dawn, Johnson witnessed a family of three fleeing slavery, and he was prompted to commit the episode to canvas.
13“Contraband” – Reaction by Black Leaders Upset that Blacks could not enlistAlso upset that the issue of slavery ignoredGeneral David Hunter abolished slavery in areas of SC, GA, and FLLincoln revokes order and reprimands him
14Section 2 – Lincoln and Emancipation Lincoln’s initial position = reluctant to move against slaveryWanted to keep border state loyaltyHe supported compensated emancipation-colonizationBlack Americans, abolitionists, and growing number of Republicans were upset that slavery wasn’t abolished by Lincoln!
15Section 2 - Lincoln Moves toward Emancipation Realizes that victory in war and the reestablishment of the Union were tied to slavery issueEmancipation would “Strike at the heart of the rebellion”Tells his cabinet, summer 1862Warned to wait for major victory so it does not look like a desperate move by a losing leader
16Section 2 - Lincoln Delays Emancipation Waited for a major victory on the battlefieldDid not come until September 1862 at Antietam
17Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 186223,000 casualties in one day!
18Essential QuestionsHow did Lincoln’s policies on slavery change as the Civil War continued?
21Emancipation Proclamation Limited to areas still in rebellionDid not include border statesChanges war goalsPreserve the UnionMake people free
22Effects of Proclamation on the South Ended chance of foreign recognitionEncouragedSlaves to fleeSlaves to resist
23Black Men Fight for the Union Emancipation ProclamationAuthorized black men to enlistUnion was losing the war and needed manpowerRobert Gould Shaw and the 54th Mass. Regiment
24Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.) Discrimination and hostilitySegregated unitsWhite officersOften held racist beliefsLower pay scaleWhite privates $13/monthBlack privates $10/month
25Black Men Fight for the Union (cont.) CombatSuffered disproportionately more casualtiesFort WagnerOlusteeThe Crater
26Confederate Reaction to Black Soldiers EnragedRefused to recognize black men as soldiersTreat as rebellious slavesGeneral Order Number 11Fort Pillow MassacreUnion responseUnion commanders angry
27Black Men in the Union Navy Tradition of serving in the U.S. Navy, 1790sIntegrated
28IX. Liberators, Spies, and Guides Black men and womenRobert SmallsHarriet TubmanMary Elizabeth BowserJohn Henry Woodson
29X. Violent Opposition to Black People New York City Draft Riot, July 1863DraftIrish men angryRich white northerners could purchase an exemptionRiot lasted four days
30Violent Opposition to Black People (cont.) Union troops and slavesOften treated slaves horriblyOthers found compassion for enslaved people“I have no heart in this war if the slaves cannot be made free,” a Union soldier wrote.
31XI. Refugees Thousands of black people escaped bondage Some followed Union armiesOthers struck out on their ownFaced re-enslavement or execution if caught
32XII. Black People and the Confederacy Confederacy based on defense of slaveryBenefited from the labors of bonds peopleToiled in fieldsWorked in factories
33Black People and the Confederacy (cont.) Impressment of black peopleMilitary demands for manpowerSlave owners contributed slave laborGovernment first asked then compelledRegistration and enrollment of free black people military labor“Twenty nigger law”Exempted men who owned twenty slaves from draft
34Black People and the Confederacy (cont.) Confederates enslave free black people“All free negroes shall be placed on the slave status and be deemed to be chattels. . . forever.”Ordered Confederate armies to capture free black people in the North and enslave them.Robert E. Lee, Pennsylvania 1863
35Black Confederates Free black people volunteered services Show loyalty and gain white acceptanceSouthern leaders generally ignored offers unless for menial labor
36Black Confederates (cont.) Small number of black men fight for CSASome black civilians profit if South winsJohn Wilson BucknerWilliam Ellison
37Black Enlistments General Patrick Cleburne recommends, early 1864 President Davis cease and desist orderMost southerners considered arming slaves appallingDefied southern assumptions“If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong.”--Howell Cobb
38One week before war ended. March 1865 Confederate Congress voted to enlist 300,000Receive same pay as white soldiersSlaves freed only with consent of owners and state agreedOne week before war ended.
39XIII. Conclusion185,000 black soldiers and sailors served in the Union militaryMost had been former slavesAlmost 40,000 died in combat or of disease during the warAbraham Lincoln and the shift in public attitudesWhite man’s warColonizationEnlistmentAppreciation