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African Americans in the War

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1 African Americans in the War
Chapter 7 Section 2

2 The Push towards Emancipation
Abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison were pressuring Abraham Lincoln to address the issue of slavery. Union generals were unsure what to do with runaway slaves who came under their command. Benjamin Butler claimed these fugitives to be his contraband, or captured war supplies.

3 The Push Towards Emancipation
Lincoln began working on a plan to emancipate, or free, enslaved African Americans. He proposed his plan to his Cabinet in the summer of 1862. They urged him to wait for the right moment—a major Union victory. The opportunity came after the Battle of Antietam. 23,000 soldiers were either dead or wounded at day’s end, making it the bloodiest day of the Civil War Lincoln had the key victory he needed.

4 Emancipation at last The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862. Issued as a military decree, it freed all enslaved people in rebellion states after January 1, 1863. Lincoln hoped it would convince southern states to surrender before the deadline. Did Lincoln’s Proclamation free all slaves? No; only in ‘rebellious’ territories After Lincoln’s proclamation, the issue of slavery became the focus for both sides. The proclamation encouraged African- Americans in Union states to join the war.

5 Emancipation Proclamation: September 22, 1862
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty- three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free”

6 Which States did the Proclamation Effect?

7 Effects of the Proclamation
Before the Proclamation After the Proclamation Confederacy had used slaves as free labor to help their war effort: growing food, building railroads, making uniforms, etc. Without slaves to do these support jobs, the South’s ability to fight a war would be hurt.

8 Effects of the Proclamation
Before the Proclamation After the Proclamation The goal of the war was to bring the Southern states back into the Union NOT to end slavery. Army’s new job is to bring states back into the Unions, AND free individual slaves.

9 Effects of the Proclamation
Before the Proclamation After the Proclamation Most citizens in the North favored the war because they wanted to restore their country. Some in the North are angry and turn against the war because they do not want to fight to help slaves.

10 Effects of the Proclamation
After the Proclamation Before the Proclamation The Confederacy had been trying to get help from European countries like Great Britain. Now that the North is fighting to end slavery Britain will not help the South because they don’t want to look like they are defending slavery.

11 54th Massachusetts Regiment
After the Emancipation Proclamation, the Union began actively recruiting black troops. One group, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was an all- black regiment. They followed their leader, Robert Gould Shaw into a pivotal battle to capture Fort Wagner in Charleston, S.C. Often times, black soldiers were given menial tasks, long guard duties and at the forefront of key battles. It took three years for them to receive equal pay. Many southerners were opposed to fighting alongside African Americans. Draw your own conclusion: How did this give the Union an added advantage? Blacks were more likely to side with the Union– added troops that knew the terrain

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