2 Define the following terms: emancipate: to free from slaveryratify: to give official approval
3 Emancipation. PFrom the start of the war through the Battle of Antietam, what was Northerners’ main goal? To preserve the Union rather than to destroy slavery.
4 Why did Lincoln hesitate to move against slavery?. Because of the border states. He knew that making an issue of slavery would divide the people and make the war less popular
5 Lincoln’s official position was that he would do what he had to do to preserve the Union. What was his personal wish toward the slaves?“that all men everywhere could be free.”
6 How did Northerners feel the slaves were helping the Confederacy? Enslaved people in the confederacy raised crops used to feed the armies and did the heavy work in the trenches at the army camps.
7 What did Congress do in 1861 and 1862? Congress passed laws that freed enslaved people who were held by those active in the rebellion against the Union.
8 Complete the chart with the factors that caused Lincoln to change his war goals to include freeing enslaved persons.Striking a blow against slavery would make Britain and France less likely to aid the South.He was convinced that slavery helped the South continue fighting. Every slave who worked enabled a white Southerner to fight in the Confederate army.Politically, he believed it important that the president, not the antislavery republicans in Congress make the decision on ending slavery. “I must do the best I can and bear the responsibility
9 Why didn’t Lincoln emancipate the slaves immediately? He didn’t want to appear desperate when the North was losing the war
10 The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves in which area The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves in which area? How many slaves did it free when it was issued? How many slaves had already escaped to the Union lines?Only in the states that the Confederacy controlled. None. 100,000
11 What was the effect of the proclamation in Europe? Britain took a strong position against slavery. Once Lincoln proclaimed emancipation, Britain and France decided to withhold recognition of the Confederacy
12 Which amendment actually freed the slaves? When was it passed? The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified in 1864
13 How did slaves contribute to the Confederate war effort? They labored on plantations and in vital iron, salt, and lead mines. Some were nurses in military hospitals and cooks in the army. By the end of the war, about 1/6 of the enslaved population had fled to areas controlled by Union armies.
14 Why did the Southerners refuse to use African American soldiers? The possibility of a rebellion, and they didn’t want to give them weapons.
15 What was Robert E. Lee’s opinion on this issue. Why What was Robert E. Lee’s opinion on this issue? Why? What were the results?Lee supported using them and believed that those who fought should be freed. The Confederate Congress passed a law in 1865 to enlist enslaved people, but it didn’t include automatic freedom. The war ended before any regiment could be organized.
16 When African Americans could not fight in the Union army, what other ways did they help? They were accepted in the Union navy, they were good guides and spies because of their knowledge of the South (if they had escaped from there), and some helped many escape slavery (H. Tubman)
17 How many African Americans eventually served the Union? 10% of Union forces were African American by the end of the war. 200,000 served while 37,000 lost their lives defending the Union.
18 Explain what happened to the 54th Massachusetts on July 18, 1863. Led by white abolitionists, nearly ½ of the men were wounded, captured or killed when they attacked a Confederate fortification near Charleston, SC.
19 How did Grant feel about African American soldiers? He said, “they will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weakens him in the same proportion they strengthen us.”
20 Explain how slaves felt when they saw African American soldiers. They were overjoyed.