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C. 1750 – c. 1900 CE Ch 14, pg. 165 Source: AP World History Crash Course by J.P. Harmon.

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Presentation on theme: "C. 1750 – c. 1900 CE Ch 14, pg. 165 Source: AP World History Crash Course by J.P. Harmon."— Presentation transcript:

1 c – c CE Ch 14, pg. 165 Source: AP World History Crash Course by J.P. Harmon

2 c – c CE

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4  Nationalism Sense of pride and devotion to one’s country Powerful factor in empire-building  Unofficial competition for territory  Catch up  The Industrial Revolution Western nations used products of the Industrial Revolution to gain the upper hand of Africans Western Europeans reached the interior of Africa for the first time

5  Economic Control of world markets spread from just governments to include multinational corporations Economic stakes higher in “new” imperialism because amount and value greater Europeans saw Africa and Asia as potential markets for their goods  (products of the Industrial Revolution)

6  “The White Man’s Burden” White Europeans believed they were doing the people in Africa, Asia and Oceania a favor Bringing the unfortunate of the world (non- Europeans) technology was noble  Medicine  Education  Christianity Rudyard Kipling  “The White Man’s Burden” poem

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8  European Imperialism in Africa before the 19 th Century Classical era (600 BCE – 600 CE) Mediterranean coast North of Sahara 16 th century Portuguese set up military outposts along both coasts but NO colonies Dutch East India Company establish a colony at Cape Town, South Africa

9  Early 19 th Century, Britain began to send settlers to South Africa Causing tension with Dutch settlers “Boers” Increased already existing tension with native  1830s France colonized Algeria and then most of NW Africa  Belgium began the “scramble” in 1880s in central Africa in The Congo  By 1914 all by 2 areas controlled by Europeans

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11  Started by King Leopold of Belgium in the 1880s  European countries tried to then out-do the others  Met at the Berlin Conference of  Effectively divided Africa (without the consent of Africans) like a pizza

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13  Much more difficult to bring under European control Asian gov’ts more stable Ottoman Empire had large military Japan also major power in Pacific China was not desired for territory but economic reasons

14  Britain in India  “Jewel in the Crown”  Britain won the Seven Years’ War with France and gained their overseas holdings Canada Much of South Asia (with help of the British East India Company)

15  Britain in India  “Jewel in the Crown”  East India Co. folded and Brit gov’t began direct control of India  Remained of 1947  Also extended their control to Malaysia, Singapore and several islands

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18  “Manifest Destiny” “Sea to Shining Sea” Louisiana Purchase s war with Mexico for Texas and Pacific coast territory south of Canada Alaska from Russia1867 (“Seward’s Folly) Several Pacific Islands (refueling stations) by 1900 Spanish-American War gained Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico Annexed Hawaii

19  Established in 1871  Primary goal was to catch up with other European countries particularly Britain  Germany hosted the Berlin Conference for ulterior motives To gain colonies in Africa  Also gained islands in South Pacific Marshalls, Solomons, Carolines, W. Samoa

20  Meiji Restoration changed make-up of gov’t in 1860s  Proved to be eager of become more Westernized  Began aggressively to create their empire Sino-Japanese War 1890s  Gained Korea Russo-Japanese War1905  Gained Manchuria

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22  Scramble for Africa 1885  Peaceful division of African territory among European countries  Little to no concern for African people  Social Darwinism “superior” civilizations deserved to conquer those considered “inferior”

23  Britain attempted to connect colonies in North Africa with those in South Africa “from Capetown to Cairo” Cecil Rhodes

24  “White Dominions” Primarily British Where colonists outnumbered natives Through disease and/or conquest  Australia, New Zealand  America, Canada  “Settler Colonies” Natives majority but colonists ruled  South Africa, Singapore (British)  Philippines (US)  Algeria (France)

25  Social efforts mixed  Christianity spread in sub-Saharan Africa but not in Muslim held North  Attempts to “civilize” with clothing and education  Some African elites sent to Europe for education  European literature reflects “civilizing” themes Tarzan Heart of Darkness

26  Not as impactful in this era because of previous contact  Variety of methods used to gain control Malaysia treaties with local rulers = indirect control France used combination military force and diplomacy to control SE Asia

27  England in India used “Sepoys” of control native population Native Indian military forces Generally loyal to Britain Deviated from this in 18..s

28  Britain wanted to trade more w/China  China refused  Britain began smuggling opium into China  China protested, went to war and lose  China forced to sign several unfair treaties that increased Britain’s economic presence  Britain gained the island of Hong Kong

29  This resulted in other imperial nations to do the same in China  Created “Spheres of Influence” Individual areas of exclusive trading rights in China  “Open Door Policy” Proposed by US (because they didn’t have a SoI Resulted in a trading free for all

30  Christian missionaries less effective in Asia than in Africa  European literature reflected the lure of the exotic “White Man’s Burden”  Jungle Book

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32  Variety of African reactions to European Imperialism Violent, warfare Reluctant acceptance Full cooperation

33  Warfare French spent YEARS subduing local rebellions Dutch Boers in South Africa rebelled against British colonial power (Boer War) British battled Zulus in southern Africa; Muslims in Sudan

34  Reluctant acceptance OR full cooperation Other Africans signed treaties and acted as guides/interpreters Ruling African elite families cooperated with Europeans for financial gain Many of these elites went to Europe for education and returned to begin independence movements

35  Same pattern as in Africa  Rebellion, reluctant or full cooperation  Military resistance In Afghanistan (Brits) In Philippines (US) China (all foreigners)  Taiping  Boxer Rebellion

36  Military Resistance India (Brits)  Sepoy = Indian soldiers employed by Brits  Sepoy Rebellion  Controversy over animal fat in supplies used by Sepoys; lack of cultural sensitivity  Took Brits a year to quell rebellion  End of Mughal Dynasty  End of indirect Brit rule in India  Beginning of direct control; British raj

37  Cooperation Many Indian soldiers remained loyal to British government after the Sepoy Rebellion Siam (Thailand) invited Brit representatives in to help “westernize” Siam  Anna and the King  The King and I


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