Presentation on theme: "Unit Focus: How did Western industrial powers gain global empires?"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit Focus: How did Western industrial powers gain global empires? The New ImperialismUnit Focus: How did Western industrial powers gain global empires?
2IMPERIALISM:Imperialism is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country.The stronger country dominates the social, economic, and political life of the weaker nation.
3Causes of Imperialism Include: Economic InterestsPolitical & Military Interests (nationalism)Humanitarian GoalsSocial Darwinism
4Western colonial officials and missionaries thought that they had a duty to spread the “blessing of Western civilization” to their African and Asian “little brothers.” How was this a biased viewpoint?
5Economic Interests:The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new marketsHarvesting Rubber
6Political & Military Interests: Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world
7Humanitarian GoalsEuropean nations wanted to help their “little brother” neighbors
8Social DarwinismEuropeans believed they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to othersRudyard Kipling’s poem
9“The White Man’s Burden” Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child….
10Types of ImperialismColony: a country or territory governed internally by a foreign powerProtectorate: a country with its own internal government but under control of an outside powerSpheres of Influence: An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privilegesEconomic Imperialism: An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments
12The Age of Imperialism: Scramble for Africa Analyze how Europeans became interested in AfricaAnalyze how Europeans were able to conquer AfricaExplain the Berlin Conference & the impact it had on AfricaExplain the Boer War & its impactAnalyze the positive & negative legacy imperialism had on Africa
16European Conquest of Africa Better weaponsGuns vs. spears & clubsAble to control a conquered area more easilySteamboatRailwaysCable lines (telegraph)The drug quinine in 1829 protected Europeans from being infected from malariaThis allowed Europeans to travel more freely in AfricaEuropeans learned to play rival groups against each other
17David LivingstoneLate 1860s, David Livingstone- a missionary from Scotland-traveled deep into central Africa to promote Christianity. Several years passed with no word from him. An American newspaper sent a reporter to find him he found him on the shores of Lake Tanganyika
18The reporter, H.M. Stanley, would write articles about his journey in trying to find him. His famous greeting, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume,” made headlines around the world.
19Division of AfricaThe discovery of gold & diamonds in Africa increased Europeans interestBerlin ConferenceCompetition was so intense that 14 nations met at the Berlin Conference in to help prevent war over Africa. There was little regard or representation for native Africans or little thought about Ethnic or Linguistic groups when the divisions were made
20King Leopold II of Belgium After hearing stories about Dr. Livingstone, King Leopold commissioned (hired) Livingstone to obtain land in the Congo for him.King Leopold also sent emissaries (government workers) to establish trade with Africans in the Congo.This helped sparked interest from other nations to explore Africa.
21European Motives For Colonization European Nationalism Source forRawMaterialsMissionary ActivityIndustrialRevolutionEuropeanMotivesFor ColonizationMarkets for Finished GoodsMilitary & Naval BasesSocial DarwinismEuropean RacismPlaces to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul.Humanitarian ReasonsSoc. & Eco. Opportunities“White Man’s Burden”
24The Boer WarDespite the Berlin Conference to prevent conflict- there was a major conflict in South Africa…known as the Boer WarBetween the British & Dutch settlers (Boers)The discovery of gold & diamonds in southern Africa made this area very tempting to the BritishThe Boers eventually took arms up against the BritishThe British won the war & the Boers joined the Union of South Africa
25Congress of Berlin (1878)Purpose Great Powers & Ottomans met to settle issues from the Russo-Turkish War.Disraeli represented England.
28The Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa NegativeLoss control of their landDiseasesBreakdown of their traditional cultureArtificial boundaries that divided or combined groups unnaturally and still create problems todayIdentify problems because of the two cultures
29The Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa PositiveReduced local warfareImproved sanitation & provided hospitals and schools (lifespan increase/higher literacy)Economic expansion- African products became valuableRailroads, dams, telephone, telegraphsReally only benefited Europeans…rarely the Africans!
30“The Colossus of Rhodes” Cecil Rhodes ( )“The Colossus of Rhodes”
31Uncle Sam: “The Colossus of the Pacific” (A Parody)
321. “Scramble for Africa”1869: Disraeli pushed for the completion of the Suez Canal.
331. “Scramble for Africa” Gladstone opposed the “Mad Scramble.” : First Boer War in South Africa [Gladstone].
341. “Scramble for Africa”: Mahdi uprising in the Sudan [Gladstone].Muhammad Ahmad “al-Mahdi”Charles Gordon “Pasha”
40England’s Economic Decline? (1870s-1914) Germany & the U. S. became England’s chief economic rivals.Influx of cheap agricultural products from overseas caused a rapid decline in British farming.Germany & U. S. overtake Britain in basic iron & steel production.England’s share of world trade fell from 23% in 1876 to 15% in 1913.British science & technological education lagged behind Germany.England is slow to modernize her aging industrial infrastructure.England clings to free trade while everyone else is erecting tariff walls.
41French Colonial Empire The empire set up under the 3rd Republic was the greatest France had ever possessed.Ironically, two-thirds of the missionary priests outside Europe were French!By 1914, France was the second largest colonial power in the world and the largest in Africa.