Presentation on theme: "The New Imperialism 1800-1914 Unit Focus: How did Western industrial powers gain global empires?"— Presentation transcript:
The New Imperialism 1800-1914 Unit Focus: How did Western industrial powers gain global empires?
IMPERIALISM: Imperialism is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country. The stronger country dominates the social, economic, and political life of the weaker nation.
Causes of Imperialism Include: Economic Interests Political & Military Interests (nationalism) Humanitarian Goals Social Darwinism
Western colonial officials and missionaries thought that they had a duty to spread the “blessing of Western civilization” to their African and Asian “little brothers.” How was this a biased viewpoint?
Economic Interests: The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets Harvesting Rubber
Political & Military Interests: Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world
Humanitarian Goals European nations wanted to help their “little brother” neighbors
Social Darwinism Europeans believed they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to others Rudyard Kipling’s poem
“The White Man’s Burden” Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child….
Types of Imperialism Colony: a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power Protectorate: a country with its own internal government but under control of an outside power Spheres of Influence: An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Economic Imperialism: An independent but less- developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments
The Age of Imperialism: Scramble for Africa Analyze how Europeans became interested in Africa Analyze how Europeans were able to conquer Africa Explain the Berlin Conference & the impact it had on Africa Explain the Boer War & its impact Analyze the positive & negative legacy imperialism had on Africa
African Trade [15c-17c]
Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
European Conquest of Africa Better weapons Guns vs. spears & clubs Able to control a conquered area more easily Steamboat Railways Cable lines (telegraph) The drug quinine in 1829 protected Europeans from being infected from malaria This allowed Europeans to travel more freely in Africa Europeans learned to play rival groups against each other
David Livingstone Late 1860s, David Livingstone- a missionary from Scotland-traveled deep into central Africa to promote Christianity. Several years passed with no word from him. An American newspaper sent a reporter to find him. 1871- he found him on the shores of Lake Tanganyika
The reporter, H.M. Stanley, would write articles about his journey in trying to find him. His famous greeting, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume,” made headlines around the world.
Division of Africa The discovery of gold & diamonds in Africa increased Europeans interest Berlin Conference Competition was so intense that 14 nations met at the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 to help prevent war over Africa. There was little regard or representation for native Africans or little thought about Ethnic or Linguistic groups when the divisions were made
King Leopold II of Belgium After hearing stories about Dr. Livingstone, King Leopold commissioned (hired) Livingstone to obtain land in the Congo for him. King Leopold also sent emissaries (government workers) to establish trade with Africans in the Congo. This helped sparked interest from other nations to explore Africa.
Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism “White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism
Africa in the 1880s
Africa in 1914
The Boer War Despite the Berlin Conference to prevent conflict- there was a major conflict in South Africa…known as the Boer War Between the British & Dutch settlers (Boers) The discovery of gold & diamonds in southern Africa made this area very tempting to the British The Boers eventually took arms up against the British The British won the war & the Boers joined the Union of South Africa
Congress of Berlin ( 1 878) * Purpose Great Powers & Ottomans met to settle issues from the Russo- Turkish War. * Disraeli represented England.
South Africa: Diamond Monopoly
The Boer War: 1899 - 1900 The Boers/The British
The Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa Negative Loss control of their land Diseases Breakdown of their traditional culture Artificial boundaries that divided or combined groups unnaturally and still create problems today Identify problems because of the two cultures
The Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa Positive Reduced local warfare Improved sanitation & provided hospitals and schools (lifespan increase/higher literacy) Economic expansion- African products became valuable Railroads, dams, telephone, telegraphs Really only benefited Europeans…rarely the Africans!
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) “The Colossus of Rhodes”
Uncle Sam: “The Colossus of the Pacific” (A Parody)
1. “Scramble for Africa” * 1869: Disraeli pushed for the completion of the Suez Canal.
1. “Scramble for Africa” * Gladstone opposed the “Mad Scramble.” * 1880-1881: First Boer War in South Africa [Gladstone].
1. “Scramble for Africa” * 1884-1885: Mahdi uprising in the Sudan [Gladstone]. Muhammad Ahmad “al-Mahdi” Charles Gordon “Pasha”
2. Middle East * 1878-1880: Second Anglo-Afghan War
Keep the “Sick Man of Europe” in Good Health!
3. India: The British Raj The new “Empress of India” receiving the “Jewel in the Crown” of her Empire.
Britain Is Everywhere!
The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire
England’s Economic Decline? (1870s-1914) Germany & the U. S. became England’s chief economic rivals. Influx of cheap agricultural products from overseas caused a rapid decline in British farming. Germany & U. S. overtake Britain in basic iron & steel production. England’s share of world trade fell from 23% in 1876 to 15% in 1913. British science & technological education lagged behind Germany. England is slow to modernize her aging industrial infrastructure. England clings to free trade while everyone else is erecting tariff walls.
French Colonial Empire * The empire set up under the 3 rd Republic was the greatest France had ever possessed. * Ironically, two-thirds of the missionary priests outside Europe were French! * By 1914, France was the second largest colonial power in the world and the largest in Africa.