Presentation on theme: "FROM ISOLATION TO DEPORTATION THE DESTRUCTION OF DUTCH JEWRY."— Presentation transcript:
FROM ISOLATION TO DEPORTATION THE DESTRUCTION OF DUTCH JEWRY
One of the topics that keep intriguing students of the Holocaust is the low survival rate of the Jews of the Netherlands. Survival rate of the Jews from the Netherlands The Netherlands: of the 140.000 Jews elected to be killed, 27% survived. Belgium: of the 60.000 Jews elected to be killed, 60% survived. France: of the 320.000 Jews elected to be killed, 75% survived.
Explanation of the national differences in the survival rates of the Jews from the Netherlands and other West-European countries The role of the German perpetrators The role of the Dutch bureaucracy The Dutch Queen and her Government The Dutch population at large The Judenrat The role of the victims
Number of Jews and percentage of survivors per province in the Netherlands Groningen4.70822% Friesland 85234% Drenthe2.49820% Overijsel4.38543% Gelderland6.64239% Utrecht3.80251% Noord-Holland 87.56627% Zuid-Holland 25.64832% Zeeland 17456% Noord-Brabant2.28148% Limburg1.44149%
Jewish refugees from Germany As Adolf Hitler came into power, many German Jews tried to escape to the Netherlands and Belgium These countries were unsure how to relate to these refugees, although many refugees were accepted by both of the countries Belgium was more tolerant than the Netherlands The policy of the Dutch authorities before WWII was disastrous for the Jews in the Netherlands Lloyd hotel in Amsterdam
Jewish refugees from Germany The Dutch policy regarding the refugees Since 1933 there was no real policy Because of the sudden big stream of refugees there was a negative attitude from the side of the Dutch authorities 1934-1938 very strict rules 1938 closure of the Dutch border “ A refugee will be treated as an unwanted element in the Dutch society and therefore will be considered as a stranger, who has to be refused at the border or inside our country has to be returned to the other side of the border ”. (C. Goseling, Roman Catholic Minister of Justice, May 1938; Archive Ministry of Foreign Affairs: 31) Approximately between 17.000 till 25.000 refugees were allowed to enter the Netherlands towards the end of 1938
Jewish refugees from Germany Entry with passport and a lot of money was possible till May 30 th 1934 After May 30 th 1934 no entry was possible, not even with a passport or with a lot of money. German Jewish refugees did not have rights and were therefore dependant on the willingness of the Dutch police and got a special treatment
Jewish refugees from Germany Dec 5 th 1938: The borders are closed Government decided to set up 25 camps for the growing number of illegal refugees Febr 23 rd 1939: Decision to set up one central camp: - financial reasons - police - the long-term housing for a large group is immoral - It was not possible for the refugees to receive effective training and they could not be made suitable for emigration, argued Van Boeyen (Minister of Inner Affairs)
Jewish refugees from Germany Different political arguments for concentrating the refugees in a ‘central’ camp The argument was that public policy would be compromised if the Jewish refugees from camp Westerbork freedom would get a host family. This required a minor amendment to be made for this to proceed legally. The Aliens Act of 1918 was amended so that it became possible for Justice for legal refugees to intern. On October 9, 1939 the first refugees were housed in Westerbork, near the German border.
Jewish refugees from Germany A comparison of Dutch and Belgian refugee policy Netherlands behaved very intolerant towards the Jewish refugees. Although it was known that the situation of Jews in Germany was extremely difficult, Netherlands kept their borders closed. Belgium on the other hand was a lot more humane refugee with her. Belgium allowed would-be immigrants because of the economic interests of the country to stay, for the Dutch government the financial resources of the refugees did not play a role.
Jewish Council Founded in 1941 Leaders: David Cohen and Abraham Asscher The Jewish Council collaborated on several grounds with the German occupiers: They kept a file cabinet. The composition of the lists of Jews who were sent on transport, done by German officials. The Council decided who stayed. (usually temporary). Joodsche Weekblad They were involved in introducing anti-Jewish measures such as introducing the yellow star.
Queen Wilhelmina and the Government Her Majesty departed one day before the capitulation to England without her ministers to give any instructions. Being in London the queen led the Dutch government in exile. Only on May 14, the day of the capitulation, by Senior General Winkelman announced to the Dutch people that their queen had left the country. With Queen Wilhelmina leaving on May 13, 1940 not only the head of state but also the supreme authority, de facto and de jure. Many Dutch felt being abandoned.
Queen Wilhelmina and the Government A day after the departure of the queen, the ministers went into an armored fortress in Hoek van Holland. Only two ministers stayed, M.P.L. Steenberghe of Economic Affairs and Dr. A.A. van Rhijn of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Queen Wilhelmina and the Government Now the Dutch government was in exile, Winkelman had to take over civil power. Both the executive and the legislature were in General Winkelman ‘ s hands The policy was: we have to make life of the ‘ enemies ’. “ Don ’ t do stupid things ” (General Winkelman to the Dutch Government in exile) Unfortunately, constitutionally, a 'transfer' to a place outside the Dutch kingdom, according to Article 21 of the Constitution is impossible and this led to an opening where Hitler's lawyers immediately anticipated. Had Queen Wilhelmina chosen to have its seat moved to an overseas territory, within the kingdom of the Netherlands, that would be consistent with the Constitution, but Wilhelmina found this not a good idea (climate)
Queen Wilhelmina and the Government Refer to land war regulations in 1907, Wilhelmina remained during the occupation the legal authority. In accordance with the laws of war an occupying power is not allowed to impose civilian rule over the occupied area when a civil government is present. This meant that all of Hitler's decrees, ordinances and decrees were not valid. Seyss-Inquart the Secretaries-General proposed to work together. After this, this proposal was discussed with General Winkelman and the acquisition of the civil administration by Seyss-Inquart became a fact.
The police J.H. Koerts, an inspector of the police from Groningen, felt that the occupiers have to obey: “ In case the police man can ’ t, there is only one solution: leaving the police.. ” There were instructions of the Dutch government from 1937 regarding attitude of the police in case an enemy would attack the Netherlands. Seyss-Inquart had a Verordnung established in May 1940 which provided what role the police would take under the German occupation: "Preserving the public peace ”. The Dutch police is under the supervision of the German police. Compared to what the Dutch police was actually assigned this regulation was very tactical. Regarding the Holocaust, the Dutch police, as most of the officials in the Netherlands, made life very easy for the Germans.
The police Since August 6 th 1942 there was a ‘ Dutch police unit ’ lead by Sybren Tulp established in order to arrest Jews in Amsterdam.. In many cases were this the so-called Schalkhaarders: Dutch policemen with nazi outlook.
The police Round 1943 began to emerge resistance against the German policy. In several places in the Netherlands the police refused to assist in rounding up Jews. This resistance was fueled by the churches and the government in London. The police was obliged to all orders of the German police or soldiers simply to follow.