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Denmark Norway The Netherlands Aims Methods Effectiveness.

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Presentation on theme: "Denmark Norway The Netherlands Aims Methods Effectiveness."— Presentation transcript:

1 Denmark Norway The Netherlands Aims Methods Effectiveness

2 Is it even possible for nonviolent resistance to be effective in any way? “the greatest failure of Western civilization” - International Committee of the Red Cross, 2006

3 Germany occupation of Denmark began April 1940 and lasted until Germany surrendered in May 1945 Denmark lacked strategic importance to Germany except as a gateway to Norway and as a propaganda tool – Hitler’s “model protectorate” The position of Danes at the top of Nazi racial hierarchy also led to better treatment Hitler said Germany would “respect Danish sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as neutrality” while they occupied the country

4 Denmark retained its legitimate government and control over institutions e.g. police and judiciary Official government position of cooperation Danes were not ideologically sympathetic towards Germans, but cooperated for pragmatic reasons

5 1940-1943 adaptation to occupation. Resistance movement more marginal However, some early forms of resistance, e.g. - King Christian X - Community song festivals 1940 gathered 750,000 people together - Boycott of German cultural events - ‘Freezing out’ of Germans - Radio Copenhagen – “Here is the latest German communiqué”

6 King Christian X rides through Copenhagen

7 Some more active resistance e.g. - Intelligence-gathering for Allies - 1941 Communist Party outlawed – led to organised communist resistance - Anti-Comintern Pact signed November 1941 – Danish anger and spontaneous demonstrations in response Resistance advanced 1943 - Stalingrad - Election - Strikes and sabotage Led to resignation of Danish government


9 - 1943 Jews supposed to be rounded up but rescued to Sweden instead. 7000 transferred - Over 99% of Danish Jews survived the Holocaust as a result

10 German occupation began after Norway was invaded April 1940, and ended in May 1945 Strategically important to Germany Puppet government under unpopular Norwegian Nazi Vidkun Quisling (right) Occupied by 300,000 soldiers throughout war – 1 per 8 Norwegians. Visible threat of violence

11 Quisling intended to create a new fascist Norwegian Teachers’ Union, 1942 – start of foundations for new fascist state 8,000-10,000 teachers out of 12,000 refused to join 1,100 arrested and deported to labour camps Quisling feared alienating Norwegians further and ordered their release, blocking his plan for a corporate state – Hitler then ordered Quisling to abandon this plan entirely

12 Quisling tried to alter official Church prayer to remove mention of Parliament and the King Clergy made congregation aware of their disagreement with this Published a letter criticising escalating violence in Norway: “When those who have authority in a community tolerate violence and injustice and oppress souls, the Church must be the guardian of people’s consciences”. They went on to state that they considered the new administration of the country to be “in conflict with God’s law”.

13 Occupied May 1940-May 1945 Dutch government and royal family in exile. Led by German Arthur Seyss-Inquart ‘Enforced conformity’ – systematic elimination of non- Nazi organisations Resistance in small-scale, decentralised cells Sheltering of Nazi enemies widespread

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