2Anti-SemitismAnti-Semitism – the hatred or feeling of superiority to the JewsThis was not a new concept in Europe or globallyEgyptian Empire enslaved the JewsRoman Empire persecuted and killed JewsMedieval Christians arrested and persecuted Jews because of their faithJewish culture and faith is one of the most persecuted in historyNazi Anti-Semitism – Where did it come from?Germany was humiliated by the Treaty of VersaillesGermany was in an economic crisisHitler presented the Jews a scapegoat for their problems
3Why the Jews? Why were the Jews a target? Many Jews began investing in Germany during the Depression and saw the potential for their economy to rebuild.They moved in with money and stability that Germans covetedThey started up businesses and began having success because they had goods to sellThey became an easy target because of their success and the jealousy of a once proud German Empire that was suffering.How were the Jews initially persecuted?Nuremberg Laws – passed in 1935 created a separate legal status for JewsLed to Jews being deported – forced to leave the countryKristallnacht – the Night of Broken Glass – saw the destruction of Jewish businesses and the beating and murder of Jewish families
4The Final Solution What is the Final Solution? The deliberate mass execution of the Jews under the control of GermansStep 1 of the Final Solution: Creation of GhettosWhat is a ghetto?It was a confined location within a city were the Jews were forced to go to isolate them from the rest of the population, which were surrounded by walls or barbed wire fences to keep them inside and containedMost famous ghettoWarsaw, Poland – housed more than 400,000 Jews of which most died from starvation or were murdered
5The Final Solution Step 2 of Final Solution: Concentration Camps What were concentration camps?They were forced labor camps constructed outside of cities that completely removed the unwanted from society and kept them in a prison setting where they were forced to do hard and meaningless work to surviveLife in the Camps:Subjected to slave laborStarvation and disease were commonSubjected them to cruel medical experimentsDr. Josef Mengele – also called the “Angel of Death”Headed up a medical/science team that carried out cruel experiments on JewsKnown for injecting dye into eyes to try to make them turn blueConducted experiments on twins to see if one sibling could feel the pain of the other
6The Final Solution Step 3 of Final Solution: Mass Shootings/Executions Used more in the invasion of the Soviet UnionMobile killing units were established to execute all pockets of Jewish population they came across in Soviet TerritoryNazis got locals who also hated the Jews to help in these executionsThese were known as CollaboratorsExample:September 1941 – nearly 35,000 Jews were executed in a 2-day period near a place called Babi Yar near the city of Kiev (modern day Ukraine).Many felt that this was leaving too much evidence behind – led to the final step of the Final Solution
7The Final Solution Step 4 of Final Solution: Death Camps The purpose of Death Camps was to give a place for the execution of Jews and the destruction of their bodies to cover up crimes.Many of these were set up in PolandMost infamous Death Camp:AuschwitzDeath Camps:Contained gas chambers designed for killing 1000s per dayFurnaces were built for the destruction of the bodies of those who were gassed
8Victims of the Holocaust Who did the Germans execute?Over 6,000,000 Jews were executedReferred to as the HolocaustHolocaust - Mass murder of JewsAnother 5,000,000 of different groups were also executedOther groups:Poles – people from PolandSlavs – people from the area of CzechoslovakiaHomosexualsThe disabled – those with physical and mental disabilitiesThe Romany – an ethnic group made up of Gypsies
9Global Reaction to Holocaust Many were aware of the Anti-Semitic feelings of GermanyAnti-Semitism was a global issues and the United States was no differentMany turned a blind eye to Anti-Semitism because they were consumed with problems in their own nations with the Great DepressionBy 1942 – reports of brutality was reaching Great Britain and U.S. but many felt they were too brutal to be trueThey made no decision on how to handle the issue in meeting of AlliesWhat was done?1944 – The United States sets up War Refugee Board – mission was to rescue European JewsSaved nearly 200,000 JewsAllied leaders though refused to bomb the rail lines from cities to campsBy 1944 and 1945 – Allies realized the did too little – found death camps that were left behind as Germans retreated – images of death and destruction scarred those who liberated the camps
10Questions 1 of 2What is Anti-Semitism? Was this a new concept? Explain your answer.What was the root of German Anti-Semitism prior to World War II?Why were the Jews targeted in Germany?What were the Nuremberg Laws? What was Kristallnacht?What was the Final Solution? What were the four steps of the Final Solution?What was a ghetto? Where was the most infamous ghetto?
11Questions 2 of 2What is a concentration camp? What was life like in a concentration camp?Who was Dr. Josef Mengele?What made a death camp different from a concentration camp? What was the most infamous death camp?What is the Holocaust? What other groups, besides Jews were victimized by the Germans?What was the Global Reaction to the Holocaust prior to 1944? What was the reaction after 1944? What caused the change?