Presentation on theme: "Types of Phrases Types of Phrases. A phrase is: A group of related words that is used as a single part of speech. A phrase is a group of words that does."— Presentation transcript:
A phrase is: A group of related words that is used as a single part of speech. A phrase is a group of words that does not have both a subject and a predicate, so it is never a complete sentence.
Three types of phrases Prepositional phrases Appositive phrases Verbals and verb phrases
Prepositional Phrases Contain a preposition (those small words of location—in, on, under, over, beside, etc.) Have a preposition and a noun, and sometimes a word in between. On the roadBeside the ducks Over the river from Grandma To the gymin my backpack
How to remember prepositional phrases: Think about anywhere a cat can go. Over the chairUnder my car tire Around the circleOf my friend (Oops! Not foolproof) Through the yard
Second kind of phrase: APPOSITIVE This type of phrase gives information which helps us be POSITIVE that we know what is being discussed.
Appositive Phrases In each of the examples, the underlined part is the appositive. “Larry, the plumber, fixed the sink. An excellent dancer, Rebecca took years of lessons. Miss Piggy, Kermit’s girlfriend, won first prize, a pot-bellied pig.
NEXT PHRASE TYPE:Verbals When a word that looks like a verb really functions as a different part of speech in a sentence, it is called a VERBAL.
Huh? A verb that isn’t really a verb is a verbal?? This is stupid. I don’t get it.
Important Concept: The part of speech depends on how a word is used in a real sentence.
There are three types of verbal phrases: 1.Infinitive 2.Participle 3.Gerund Grammar is stupid.
One type of Verbal phrase: Infinitive Clue: look for the word “to” next to what looks like a verb. Example: “Sam likes to eat.”
EXPLANATION: “Sam likes to eat.” It seems like “eat” is just a verb, but when it’s with the word “to”, the two words together are telling us WHAT Sam likes to do. That makes the phrase “to eat” a noun.
Don’t forget: look for the “to” next to what looks like a verb.
Another type of verbal: participle A participle is a word ending in - ing or in -ed that helps describe something. Participles function as adjectives because they describe or explain.
Three examples of participles. We watched an exhausting Powerpoint. The receiver made a diving catch. The man admired the painted barn.
Wait! Shouldn’t “diving” be a verb? It sounds like action! It depends on the sentence. Here, “diving” describes the catch, so it’s an adjective. It might be a bobbled catch or a leaping catch, but it is a diving one.
Participial phrases Participles can also be in phrases. Look for “ing” or “ed”. The people standing in line grew irritated. Which people? The ones standing in line. Determined to make the team, Jo shot baskets every night. For what reason did Jo shoot? Because she’s determined to make the team.
Third type of phrase: Gerund A gerund ends in –ing A gerund always functions as a noun.
Gerunds: end in -ing You can learn a lot from studying. You can learn a lot from what? Studying. You could hear laughing all the way down the hall. What could you hear? Laughing. If you can ask a “what” question, and the word answers it, then it is a noun—a gerund.
Gerunds in phrases A gerund can also be in a phrase: Laura enjoyed vacationing in Michigan. Laura enjoyed what? Vacationing in Michigan.
REVIEW: A phrase is a group of words that functions as a single part of speech. A phrase doesn’t have both a subject and a verb, so it is never a complete sentence.
The three types of phrases are: Prepositional Appositive Verbals and verb phrases –Participial (Adjective) –Gerund (noun) –Infinitive (has the word “to” + verb)
Important: While it is not necessary, for the most part, to know the difference between all the types of phrases, it is important to know what phrases are because many punctuation rules are based on being able to identify phrases and clauses.