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Learning about Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

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Presentation on theme: "Learning about Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Learning about Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

3 A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. You already know the function of a noun, adjective, or adverba phrase simply takes on one of those functions. A phrase does not have a subject or a verb. The two main kinds of phrases are prepositional phrases and verbal phrases.

4 ! Adios!

5 Learning about Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

6 Another kind of phrase is the verbal infinitive, gerunds, & participles. As you can tell from the name, they are related to verbs. They look verbyyes, thats a word but never act as verbs. Instead they act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. There are three types of verbals well study: participial phrases, infinitive phrases, and gerund phrases.

7 Im outta here!

8 Learning about Participial Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm !

9 participle verb fallen screaming screaming had fallen was screaming These are simply phrases that seem to have verbs but not subjects. A participle is really half a verb.

10 See the difference? A participle cant take a subject, because its missing part of the verb. A participle looks like a verb, but it isnt complete. A form of the verb to be + a participle = a verb.

11 l With the verb to be, you only have a participle. The function of a participial phrase is to modify a nounin other words, a participial phrase acts as an adjective. Whoa!

12 ! Hasta la vista, baby!

13 Learning about Participial Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

14 Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food. The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites. Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food. The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites.

15 Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks. Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework. Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks. Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework.

16 See how each participial phrase tells us something about a noun? Lying on her bed describes Shanna and lost in the dryer describes the socks. Notice that Shanna is the subject of the verb ordered; socks is the subject of were. So lying, screaming, left, and lost have no subject; instead

17 of acting as verbs, they are describing the subject of the sentence. Recognizing participial phrases is crucial in avoiding the dreaded misplaced modifier or dangling participle. Hey, thats pretty simple.

18 Well, thats it!

19 Learning about Dangling Modifiers Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

20 A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause) A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause)

21 Im ghost!

22 Learning about Misplaced Modifiers Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

23 Funny things happen when modifiers appear too far away from the words they modify. Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. –An odd injuryCarolyn sprained her ankle in ice water? Funny things happen when modifiers appear too far away from the words they modify. Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. –An odd injuryCarolyn sprained her ankle in ice water?

24 Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. Left field flew over the fence? Doesnt that sound a bit strange? Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. Left field flew over the fence? Doesnt that sound a bit strange?

25 Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for. Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for.

26 ! Dicho y hecho!

27 Learning about Dangling Participial Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

28 Another type of misplaced modifier is the dangling participial phrase. Participles, as you recall, are verb forms ending with -ing in the present tense and -d or -ed in the past tense. A few participles end in -t or have irregular forms. Participle examples: dribbling, skating, scaled, burned or burnt

29 Combine a participle with other words to create a participial phrase. Remember, participial phrases act as adjectives because they modify a noun in a sentence. Participle Phrase examples: filled with hope cleaning the bathroom jumping overboard

30 Thats it!

31 Learning about Verbals (Infinitives) Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

32 When the preposition to is followed by a noun, it is a prepositional phrase: to the beach. When to is followed by a verbto run, to see, to feel it is an infinitive. Why does this matter? The rules that govern infinitives are different from rules that govern prepositional phrases; since infinitives are closely related to verbs, they can have a passive or active voice as well as present or perfect tense.

33 ! Hasta mañana!

34 Learning about Other Types of Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

35 Emily wanted to leave. Ask yourself: What did Emily want? Answer: To leave, which is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun.

36 Kenny works hard to make money. Ask yourself: Why does Kenny work? Answer: To make money, an infinitive phrase acting as an adverb, modifying work.

37 Woo hoo!

38 Learning about Other Types of Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

39 Emily wanted to leave. Ask yourself: What did Emily want? Answer: To leave, which is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun.

40 Answer: to another world is a prepositional phrase acting as an adverb, telling where transported. To read is to be transported to another world.

41 Lets do more!

42 Learning about Other Types of Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

43 Liz wanted to know why her so-called boyfriend thought he was a pimp. Answer: to know is an infinitive

44 Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to have suffered is an infinitive acting as an adverbial phrase. To have been in love is to have suffered.

45 Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to have suffered is an infinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.

46 Alrighty then!

47 Learning about Gerund Phrases Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!

48 A gerund is an –ing verb that acts as a noun. Since it acts as a noun, it can be the subject of a sentence or the object of a verb or preposition.

49 Daydreaming was her favorite pastime. Winning the lottery is my only hope. She loved eating pastries and staying up all night.

50 Dante hated studying. Partying and ing his friends took up most of his homework time. He was thinking of hiring someone to upgrade his computer, but unfortunately, spending money appalled him.

51 ! Basta!


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