Presentation on theme: "Grammar Level 3: Phrases A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar Level 3: Phrases A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words. A phrase is not a complete idea, because it is a group of words which contains no subject/predicate set and which only acts as a single part of speech. In other words, a phrase is an elaboration.
Phrases and Clauses Difference between a phrase and a clause: Both phrases and clauses are groups of words, but a clause contains both a subject and a predicate, and a phrase does not. Example: I jumped (clause) in the boat (phrase)
Appositive Phrase An appositive is an interrupting definition. It is called an appositive because it is put (pos) beside (ap) what it defines. An appositive may be only one word or it may consist of an entire phrase. Appositives are enclosed by commas, unless they are exceptionally short and clear by themselves.
Appositive Phrase Example: Mort, the hoary pedagogue, is tall. My friend Bob is tall. We always enclose appositive states and appositive years in commas: Marion, North Carolina, is at the foot of the mountains. June 20, 1997, is the date of the liftoff.
Prepositional Phrase A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and concludes with the object of a preposition. The preposition relates its object to another word in the sentence. Example: the dog in the boat The preposition in shows a spatial relationship between the its object (boat) and the noun dog.
Prepositional Phrase Prepositional phrases behave as modifiers. They act like big adjectives and big adverbs. Example: The dog in the boat barked. Here the prepositional phrase in the boat acts as a big adjective to modify the noun dog.
Prepositional Phrase the object of the preposition: The object of a preposition must either be a noun or an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them). Example: This is a present for you and me. (Correct) This is a present for you and I. (Incorrect) This letter is for him and me. She and I went with you and him. I asked a question about her and us.
Prepositional Phrase adjective prepositional phrases: Prepositional phrases which modify nouns or pronouns should be placed immediately after the noun or pronoun they modify. If you don’t do this: the adjective prepositional phrase will appear to modify the verb. Think through the logic of the following sentence: On the beach, the dog barked at the dog in the boat
Verbal Phrases A verbal is no longer a verb; it is a verb now used as something else. Verbals are nouns, adjectives, or adverbs made out of verbs. We give them fancy names and they are: Gerund: a noun made out of a verb Participle: an adjective made out of a verb Infinitive: noun or modifier made out of verb
Verbal Phrases Example: Take the verb was munching. Saw off the helping verb: munching Use it as a noun: Munching is my favorite behavior. Munching is a gerund. Now make it a verbal phrase: Rapidly munching burgers is my favoritebehavior. Rapidly munching burgers is a gerund phrase.
Verbals The power of verbals: Verbals add power and action to writing. They are powerful ways to make writing more energetic.
Gerund Phrases Gerund phrase: A gerund is a noun made out of an -ing verb, or, an -ing verb made into a noun. All kinds of subjects and objects may be made out of gerunds. A gerund might be by itself, or it might join with other words to make a gerund phrase. Example: Thinking is fun. Thinking quickly is fun. I quit joking.
Participial Phrases Participial phrase: A participle is an adjective made out of a verb, or, an -ing, -ed, or -en verb made into an adjective. Participles always act as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns. Participles may be by themselves, or they may join with other words to form participial phrases. Example: Badly cracked, the branch began to sag.
Infinitive Phrases Infinitive phrase: An infinitive is a general form of the verb made into a noun, adjective, or adverb. This general form of the verb is usually expressed by beginning with the word to: to think, to dream, to snorkel. Example: To think is a pleasure. (noun) The man to see is Mortimer Snoot. (adjective) He lives to fish. (adverb)
Breaking the Law! Infinitive clauses are an exception to the law that “a subject is a subject and an object is an object.” It is possible, in an infinitive clause, for an infinitive to act as a predicate of an object pronoun, even though only subject pronouns usually take predicates. Here is an example: We wanted him to eat fish. In this sentence, the word him has two purposes. It serves as the direct object of the main clause, and it is also the subject of the infinitive clause. Notice how flexible our language is!
Summary C. Phrases 1. Appositive phrases: Bob, my good friend, is here. 2. Prepositional phrases: Bob is in the dog house. 3. Verbal phrases: a. Gerund phrases: Finding the dog is tiresome. b. Participial phrases: Finding the dog, Bob rejoiced. c. Infinitive phrases: To find the dog is a miracle.