Presentation on theme: "Roots, Stems, Leaves and Flowers are the Criteria."— Presentation transcript:
1 Roots, Stems, Leaves and Flowers are the Criteria. Plant IdentificationRoots, Stems, Leaves and Flowers are the Criteria.
2 Plant IdentificationMany things are taken into consideration when trying to identify a plant.Roots, stems, leaves and flowers will help in the identification process.
3 TerminologyIn order to be able to identify a plant and put it in the right family, you need to know the terminology to use.
4 Plant Identification You have two main categories of plants. Monocots – grasses, grain crops, lilies, gladiolas, and palm trees
5 Plant IdentificationDicots - most of the other plants such as the shrubs, trees, and flowers.
6 Plant IdentificationThe following sections (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) will show you how to use these for plant identification purposes.
7 RootsThe type of root will normally help you identify the plant. It will place the plant into a monocot or dicot category.
8 Types of RootsTap RootHave a main central root and may have some lateral branchingE.g. Carrots
9 Types of RootsPenetrate the soil to various depths - some only a few feet, others like the mesquite to as deep as 114 ft.
10 Types of RootsFibrousHave many roots of equal size and a lot of lateral branchingFibrous roots are generally much more diffuse and closer to the surface
11 Types of RootsThis root system can effectively prevent any other plant from becoming established – ex: grasses - idea of a healthy lawn is to compete with weeds
12 Types of RootsAdventitious Buds - commonly develop on stems or roots - ex: stolons and rhizomes (Bermuda grass, cherry tree, Sumac and raspberry suckers)
13 Types of RootsProp Roots - augment regular roots for anchorage aid - ex: corn - roots come out above soil and help hold plant up
14 Types of RootsAerial Roots - extend down from the branches into the soil - ex: banyan treesPneumatophores- stick up from the mud for the purpose of absorbing oxygen – ex: cypress and mangrove
15 Types of RootsMycorrhizal fungi roots - form associations with soil fungi and act as root hairs increasing the absorption of water and minerals (symbiotic relationship - mutually beneficial) – found on trees in temperate forests such as pines and also on ferns, lettuce, white clover, perennial rye and orchids
16 Types of RootsHaustorial - parasitic roots which not only anchor but also penetrate into the hosts vascular system for water and nutrients – ex: mistletoe
17 Types of RootsStorage roots - starch and other molecules are stored for growth or flowering needs (ex: carrots, beets and turnips)
18 Types of RootsNitrogen fixing roots - members of the Leguminosae family (alfalfa, peas and clover) have a bacteria that infects their roots and forms nodules. The bacteria are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to a form, that the plant can use.
19 Why Different Types of Roots All plants are in competition with each other for food and nutrientsBy having different types of roots, the plants can reach different depths in the soil and still live side by side with other plants
20 Roots from Seeds – Monocot vs. Dicot Tap RootSeeds contain an undeveloped plant (embryo)Seed germination - embryonic root (radicle) grows by dividing and elongation of cells
21 Roots from Seeds Forms one primary root Ex: dicots (two leaves emerge from embryo), beans
22 Roots from Seeds cont.Fibrous rootEmbryos of grasses have a single radicle (root shoot)Also has other embryonic roots (seminal roots) forming just above the radicle
23 Roots from Seeds cont. All of these branch to form the fibrous root Ex: monocots (one leaf emerges from embryo)
37 Specialized StemsBulbs - large bud with small stem at lower end - storage in the form of numerous, fleshy leaves - ex: onion, lily, tulipCorms - look like bulbs, but are mostly stem tissue with a few, papery leaves on the outside - ex: gladiolus, crocus
40 LeavesLeaves are used as part of the identification process along with the roots and stems.Look of the leaf (margins, venation, and shape), arrangement and whether it is monocot or dicot.
41 LeavesLeaves may contain pubescence, glands or thorn like projections.All of these points are considered when using a leaf for identification.
42 Parts of a Dicot LeafLeaf blade – expanded, usually flat portion of a leaf – contains chloroplastsPetiole – connects the blade of a leaf to a stem or branch – holds leaf up for better air flow and to catch the light
43 Parts of a Dicot LeafVeins – threads of vascular tissue (xylem & phloem)Node – place on a stem where leaves or branches normally originateStem – used for support of leaf
44 Where leaf would be attached to the branch or stem at the node. PetioleVeinsLeaf BladeDicot Leaf
45 Parts of a Monocot Leaf Node – where leaf arises or originates from Blade – leaf blade – flat upper portion of leafStem – used for support of leaf, inflorescence, and seed heads
46 Parts of a Monocot LeafSheath – part of leaf that holds leaf to stem – encases stemLigule – membrane-like tissue extending up from the sheath (on inside) – keeps dirt and moisture out – clear membrane on leaf where attaches to stem
51 Differences Between Monocot and Dicot Leaves Monocots – blade like leaf blade – wrap around the stem – no petiole – have main vascular bundles running parallel along length of leafDicots – Have both a leaf blade and a petiole – single midrib (Vascular bundles) with branches
52 Two Types of LeavesSimple leaves – composed of a single leaf and a petiole
59 Leaf ArrangementMonocots – have only one type of arrangement – leaf comes off of a node – ex: grasses and grain crops
60 Leaf Arrangement Dicots – flowering plants Alternate – one leaf per nodeOpposite – two leaves per nodeWhorled – three or more leaves per node
61 Leaf Arrangements Whorl – look like helicopter blades – ex: Bedstraw Alternate – one on each side of the stem, are not opposite of each other but every other oneOpposite – one on each side of the stem and opposite of each other
62 Arrangement of Veins Four types of vein arrangements: Parallel veins – veins are small and run more or less parallel – most are long and narrow – ex: Buckhorn Plantain, grasses and Iris – mostly monocots
63 Arrangement of VeinsNetted veins – are large and small – the small ones connecting to each other to form a net – mostly dicots
64 Arrangement of VeinsPinnately veined – with one larger midvein and smaller veins coming off along its length – mostly dicots
65 Arrangement of VeinsPalmately veined- with two or more large veins arising at or near the base of the leaf blade (palm) – leaves are usually broad or fat – mostly dicots
73 FlowersPetals – are highly colored portions of the flower.May contain perfume (rose) or nectar glands –to attract pollinators.Number of petals on a flower is often used in the identification of plant families and genera.
74 Flowers Dicots –have sepals and/or petals in multiples of four or five Monocots – have sepals in multiples of threes
75 Parts of a FlowerSepalsPetalsStamens (anther & filaments)PedicelPistil (stigma,style & ovaries)
77 Types of Inflorescence (Flowers) Raceme – inflorescence with the flowers single on pedicels (stems) arranged along an elongated stem (rachis – this is the stem that is between the flowers) – alternate – oldest are at the bottom and the youngest are at the top. Ex: snapdragon, foxglove
78 Types of Inflorescence (Flowers) Umbel – flat-topped inflorescence with the rachis non-existent. Ex: wild carrot, dill
81 Types of Inflorescence (Flowers) Spike – type of inflorescence with the flowers sessile (without a stalk) along the rachis. Ex: gladiolusHead – a dense cluster of sessile or nearly sessile (no stalk) flowers on a very short rachis. Ex: sunflower, clover
84 Types of Inflorescence (Flowers) Panicle – inflorescence with two or more flowers on each branch which are attached to a rachis (elongated stem). Ex: wild oats, downy bromeCorymb – is made up of florets whose stalks and pedicles are arranged at random along the stalk in such a way that the florets create a flat, round top. Ex: yarrow