23 Internal Stem Structure XylemThe tissue that transports water & nutrients up from roots to stems & leaves.PhloemTissue that transports food down from leaves to roots.CambiumThin, green, actively growing tissue located between bark & wood and produces all new stem cells.
37 Roots Functions Anchor the plant Absorb water & minerals Store food Propagate or reproduce some plants
38 Different Types of Roots Tap RootOne main root, no nodesContinuation of the primary rootIdeal for anchoragePenetration is greater for waterStorage area for food
39 Different Types of Roots Fibrous RootMany finely branched secondary rootsShallow roots cover a large areaMore efficient absorption of water & mineralsRoots hold the soil to prevent erosion
40 Different Types of Roots Aerial RootsClinging air rootsShort roots that grow horizontally from the stemsRoots that fasten the plant to a supportAbsorptive air rootsAbsorb moisture from the air
41 Different Types of Roots Adventitious RootsDevelop in places other than nodesForm on cuttings & rhizomes
42 External Parts of Roots Root CapIndicates growth of new cells.
43 External Parts of Roots Root HairsTiny one celled hair-like extensions of the epidermal cells located near the tips of roots.Increase surface area.Absorb water & minerals.
44 Internal Parts of Roots Much like those of stems with phloem, cambium and xylem layers.PhloemThe outer layer.Carries food down the plant.XylemThe inner layer.Carries water & minerals up to the stem.
53 Imperfect Flower Male or female reproductive organs, but not both. Example:A male flower has sepals, petals, and stamen, but no pistils.A female flower has sepals, petals, and pistils, but no stamen.
54 Perfect FlowersContains both male and female reproductive structures.
55 Incomplete Flowers Missing one of the four major parts of the flower. StamenPistilSepalPetal
56 Complete FlowersContains male and female reproductive organs along with petals and sepals.
57 Flowers Imperfect flowers are always incomplete but…….. Perfect flowers are not always complete and……..Complete flowers are always perfect.
58 Importance of Flowers Important in florist & nursery businesses. Many plants are grown solely for their flowers.Plants have flowers to attract insects for pollination, but people grow them for beauty & economic value.