6 Monocots (grasses) - fibrous root systems (mat-like). Dicots (flowers) - taproot system with one large root.Most absorption of water and minerals occurs near root tips with root hairs - increase surface area.
18 Leaves consist of flattened blade and stalk (petiole) Some leaves evolved other purposes (spines of cacti for defense, leaves modified for water storage, brightly colored leaves that attract pollinators)
21 Each organ of plant - 3 tissue systems: dermal, vascular, ground. Dermal system consists of epidermis (covers, protects)Epidermis of leaves, most stems secretes waxy coating (cuticle) - helps parts of plant retain water.
23 Vascular tissue involved in transport of materials between roots and shoots. 1Xylem – tissue that conducts water and minerals from roots to rest of plant.2Phloem transport nutrients, especially carbohydrates produced in leaves down stem.
25 2 types of xylem cells: vessel elements, tracheids. Dead at maturity - help to thicken walls to promote water flow.Tracheids - long, thin cells with tapered ends.Vessel elements - wider, shorter, thinner walled, less tapered than tracheids.
36 Growth of tissues in plants Annual plants complete life cycle in single year or less.Biennial plants - 2 years.Plants that live many years, including trees, shrubs, and some grasses, are perennials.
40 Apical meristems found at tips of roots, stems - allow for growth in length - only happens at tips. Primary growth occurs lengthwise, secondary growth - widthwise.Lateral meristems responsible for secondary growth.
51 Lateral meristems2 cambiums responsible for secondary growth.Vascular cambium - meristem to produce secondary xylem and secondary phloem.Cork cambium - meristem for tough, thick covering for stems and roots - replaces the epidermis.
53 As secondary growth continues over years, layer upon layer of secondary xylem accumulates, producing wood.Actually dead cells.Growth in areas like Maine occur in cycles - dormancy then growth -produce growth rings.
56 Bark - all tissues external to vascular cambium (secondary phloem, cork cambium, cork) 2 types of secondary phloem: heartwood and sapwood.Heartwood (hardwood) no longer conducts water; sapwood (softwood) functions in transport of water and minerals.