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Weed Biology and Identification-202 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate.

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Presentation on theme: "Weed Biology and Identification-202 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Weed Biology and Identification-202 Target students: M.Sc. Students in Weed Science Lecture: Dr. Majid AghaAlikhani (Ph.D.) Academic position : Associate Prof. of Tarbiat Modares University maghaalikhani@modares.ac.ir 1

3 Basic Parts of the Plant Roots Stems Leaves Flower

4 Shoot system Root system

5 Taproot Lateral roots Shoot system Root system

6 Taproot Lateral roots Leaves Stem Shoot system Root system

7 Taproot Lateral roots Branch Leaves Stem Shoot system Root system

8 Taproot Lateral roots Apical bud Branch Leaves Stem Shoot system Root system Lateral bud

9 Taproot Lateral roots Apical bud Branch Node Internode Leaves Lateral bud Stem Node Shoot system Root system

10 Roots 1. Anchor Plant 2. Absorb water and minerals 3. Translocate water and minerals to stem 4. Store Food

11 Root RootStructure

12 Anchorage and support

13 Storage

14 Stems 1. Translocate water, minerals and food to the leaves 2. Support the leaves and display them to light 3. Store Food

15 Woody Dicot Stem Morphology

16 Transport and support.

17 Cactus stems store water, photosynthesize.

18 Stolons produce new individuals at nodes above ground.

19 Rhizomes produce new individuals at nodes below ground.

20 Tubers store carbohydrates.

21 Thorns provide protection.

22 Leaves 1. Make food through photosynthesis 2. Provide site of gas exchange 3. Store food

23 Transport of water, sugar, and nutrients through vascular tissue CO 2 Sunlight Water Nutrients (such as N, P, K) Shoot system Root system

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25 Make food through photosynthesis

26 Vascular tissue (b) Close-up of root tip Ground tissue Epidermal tissue Apical mersitem Sloughed-off root cap cells Root cap Root hair Zone of Cellular Maturation Zone of Cellular Elongation Zone of Cellular Division Lateral root (a) Longitudinal section of root segment mucilage Primary Growth

27 Flowers 1. Contain organs for specialized sexual production 2. Produce seeds and fruit

28 Different type of Roots A. Tap Root –Continuation of the primary root –Ideal for anchorage –Penetration is greater for water –Storage area for food made by photosynthesis

29 ARE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? THERE JUST MAY BE A QUIZ!!!

30 Different type of Roots B. Fibrous Roots –Many finely branched secondary roots –Shallow roots cover a large area More effective absorption of water and minerals Roots hold the soil to prevent erosion

31 Different type of Roots C. Aerial roots –Clinging air roots Short roots that grow horizontally from the stems Roots that fasten the plant to a support –Absorptive air roots

32 Different type of Roots Adventitious Roots –Develop in places other than nodes –Can form on cuttings and rhizomes

33 Roots Root hairs: –Tiny one celled hair like extensions of the epidermal cells located near the tips of the roots where vascular tissues have formed. –Increase surface area –Absorb water and minerals from soil

34 Absorbing water and nutrients

35 Specialized Stems A. Corm (gladiolus, crocus) – underground –Solid, fleshy, scale covered

36 WAKE UP!!!!!!!!!!!! DONT FALL ASLEEP PAY ATTENTION! THIS MEANS YOU!!!

37 Specialized Stems B. Bulb (tulips, lillies, onions) –Layers of fleshy scales that overlap each other –Underground stem

38 Specialized Stems C. Tuber (potato, caladium) –Food storage area –Short, thick underground stem

39 Specialized Stems D. Crown (African Violets, fern) –Closely grouped stems or plantlets –Just above ground or just below

40 Specialized Stems E. Spurs (pear and apple trees) –Short sems found on woody plant limbs adapted for increased production of fruits

41 Specialized Stems F. Rhizomes (iris, lily of the valley) –Underground stems that produce roots on the lower surface and extend leaves and flower shoots above the ground

42 Specialized Stems G. Stolon (Strawberry, airplane plant) –Stem that grows horizontally above the soil surface

43 Principal Tissues of the Leaf Epidermis –Cuticle Waxy substance covers the leaves and stems Waterproof layer that keeps water in plants

44 Principal Tissues of the Leaf Epidermis (cont) –Stomata Openings in the epidermis mainly located on underside of leaves Exchange of gases

45 Principal Tissues of the Leaf Epidermis (cont) –Guard Cells Two cells located on each side of stomata Open and closes stomata

46 Principal Tissues of the Leaf Mesophyll layer –Palisade mesophyll Primary site of photosynthesis –Spongy mesophyll Contains air and chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis and gas exchange

47 Principal Tissues of the Leaf Veins or vascular bundles –In spongy mesophyll –Phloem tissues conduct food from photosynthesis to rest of plant –Xylem tissues conduct water and minerals up to cells in leaves and stems

48 Parts of the Flower Sepals –Outer covering of the flower bud –Protects the stamens and pistills when flower is in bud stage

49 Parts of the Flower Petals –Brightly colored –Protects stamen and pistills –Attracts pollinating insects

50 Parts of the Flower Stamens –Male Reproductive part –Anther-produces pollen –Filament-supports the anther

51 Parts of the Flower Pistil –Female reproductive part –Ovary Enlarged portion at base of pistill Produces ovules which develop into seeds –Stigma Holds the pollen grains

52 Parts of the Flower Style –Connects the stigma with ovary –Supports the stigma so that it can be pollinated

53 Complete and Incomplete Flowers Complete: have all four main parts –Sepals –Petals –Stamens –Pistils

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