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Plant Anatomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Anatomy

2 Basic plant anatomy 1 A. root root tip-roots grow at the tip
root hairs- increase absorptive surface area

3 Roots 1 Roots anchor plant in soil, absorb minerals & water, & store food fibrous roots (1) mat of thin roots that spread out monocots tap roots (2) 1 large vertical root also produces many small lateral, or secondary roots dicots root hairs (3) increase absorptive surface area 2 3

4 Basic plant anatomy 2 B. shoot (stem) Nodes-where leaves attach Buds
Internodes-space between nodes Buds Meristems are where plant shoots grow terminal or apical buds at top of stem axillary buds- at base of leaf on stem flower buds-produce flowers

5 Basic plant anatomy 3 C. leaves Cuticle- waterproof layer
Epidermis- covers top & bottom surface mesophyll tissue Palisade- columnar cells, with choloroplasts just below upper epidermis Spongy- irregularly shaped cells with air spaces between them below palisade veins (vascular bundles)

6 Leaves Function of leaves photosynthesis
Traps solar energy Produces sugars (food) gas exchange- occurs through pores called stomates Guard cells open or close stomates-depends on water Transpiration- water loss through the stomates


8 Plant adaptations Roots- Stems Tap root-used for food storage (carrot)
-rhizomes (iris) & stolons (strawberry)- used to make new plants tubers- (potato) used for storage Bulbs- (onion) buds used for storage & new plants

9 stolons (strawberries)
Modified shoots stolons (strawberries) rhizome (ginger) tuber (potato) bulb (onion)

10 Plant adaptations 3. Leaves
CAM & C4-photosynthesis- chemical adaptation for plants in hot climates Enlarged darker leaf-jungle plants-low light Spines & poisons- defense against herbivores Thickened leaf- water storage Tendrils- climbing plants- attach & support Bright colors- leaves doing job of petals

11 colored leaves (poinsetta)
Modified leaves tendrils (peas) spines (cacti) succulent leaves colored leaves (poinsetta)

12 Interdependent systems
Both systems depend on the other roots need sugars produced by photosynthetic leaves shoots need water & minerals absorbed by roots sugars water & minerals

13 Vascular tissues Xylem move water & minerals up from roots
dead at maturity only cell walls remain transpirational pull hauls water up from roots

14 vessel elements vessel element dead cells tracheids

15 sieve tube companion cell sieve plate plasmodesmata living cells

16 Phloem: food-conducting cells
carry sugars & nutrients throughout plant sieve tube elements – Living at maturity Keep cell membrane & cytoplasm lose their nucleus & organelles sieve plates — end walls — have pores to allow flow of food between cells companion cells- attached to sieve tubes run the cell- have nucleus & cell structures

17 Vascular tissue in stems
dicot trees & shrubs monocot grasses & lilies collect annual rings

18 Putting it all together
Obtaining raw materials sunlight leaves = solar collectors CO2 stomates = gas exchange H2O uptake from roots nutrients

19 Growing Cycles Perennials - live several years, and reproduce many times Ex. woody plants Annuals - plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season (grows, flowers, reproduces and dies) Biennials - take two growing seasons to complete, reproduces in the second growing season

20 Growing Cycles Plants grow only at their tips in regions called MERISTEMS PRIMARY GROWTH makes a plant taller at roots and stems SECONDARY GROWTH makes a plant wider, or adds woody tissue

21 How Old Is That Tree? Tree Rings tell age of a tree, each ring for one growing season.This tree is 4 yrs old. Spring wood- lighter colored, larger tubes Darker colored, narrower tubes VASCULAR CAMBIUM: makes xylem and phloem and forms the annual rings

22 Comparison of Monocots & Dicots

23 Monocots & dicots Angiosperm are divide into 2 classes
dicots (eudicot) 2 cotyledons (seed leaves) leaves with network of veins woody plants, trees, shrubs, beans monocots 1 cotyledon leaves with parallel veins grasses, palms, lilies

24 Simple Tissues – consisting of one cell type
Parenchyma – thin walled & alive at maturity; cells take different shapes. (storage, can change into other cells) Collenchyma – thick walled & alive at maturity (support) Sclerenchyma – thick walled and dead at maturity (support) Sclerids or stone cells – cells that are as long as they are wide, very heavy cell walls Fibers – cells longer than they are wide

25 Epidermis – alive at maturity
Trichomes – hairs on epidermis Root Hairs – tubular extensions of epidermal cells

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