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Plant Anatomy Basic plant anatomy 1 A. root –root tip-roots grow at the tip –root hairs- increase absorptive surface area.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Anatomy Basic plant anatomy 1 A. root –root tip-roots grow at the tip –root hairs- increase absorptive surface area."— Presentation transcript:


2 Plant Anatomy

3 Basic plant anatomy 1 A. root –root tip-roots grow at the tip –root hairs- increase absorptive surface area

4 Roots Roots anchor plant in soil, absorb minerals & water, & store food –fibrous roots (1) mat of thin roots that spread out monocots –tap roots (2) 1 large vertical root also produces many small lateral, or secondary roots dicots –root hairs (3) increase absorptive surface area 2 1 3

5 Basic plant anatomy 2 B. shoot (stem) –Nodes-where leaves attach Internodes-space between nodes –Buds Meristems are where plant shoots grow terminal or apical buds at top of stem axillary buds- at base of leaf on stem flower buds-produce flowers

6 Basic plant anatomy 3 C. leaves –Cuticle- waterproof layer –Epidermis- covers top & bottom surface –mesophyll tissue Palisade- columnar cells, with choloroplasts just below upper epidermis Spongy- irregularly shaped cells with air spaces between them below palisade –veins (vascular bundles)

7 Leaves Function of leaves –photosynthesis Traps solar energy Produces sugars (food) –gas exchange- occurs through pores called stomates Guard cells open or close stomates-depends on water –Transpiration- water loss through the stomates


9 Plant adaptations 1.Roots- –Tap root-used for food storage (carrot) 2.Stems -rhizomes (iris) & stolons (strawberry)- used to make new plants -tubers- (potato) used for storage -Bulbs- (onion) buds used for storage & new plants

10 Modified shoots stolons (strawberries)rhizome (ginger) tuber (potato)bulb (onion)

11 Plant adaptations 3. Leaves CAM & C4-photosynthesis- chemical adaptation for plants in hot climates Enlarged darker leaf-jungle plants-low light Spines & poisons- defense against herbivores Thickened leaf- water storage Tendrils- climbing plants- attach & support Bright colors- leaves doing job of petals

12 succulent leaves Modified leaves tendrils (peas)spines (cacti) colored leaves (poinsetta)

13 Both systems depend on the other –roots need sugars produced by photosynthetic leaves –shoots need water & minerals absorbed by roots Interdependent systems water & minerals sugars

14 Vascular tissues Xylem –move water & minerals up from roots –dead at maturity only cell walls remain transpirational pull hauls water up from roots

15 tracheids vessel elements vessel element dead cells

16 sieve tube companion cell living cells plasmodesmata sieve plate

17 Phloem: food-conducting cells carry sugars & nutrients throughout plant sieve tube elements – Living at maturity –Keep cell membrane & cytoplasm –lose their nucleus & organelles –sieve plates — end walls — have pores to allow flow of food between cells companion cells- attached to sieve tubes –run the cell- have nucleus & cell structures

18 Vascular tissue in stems dicot trees & shrubs monocot grasses & lilies collect annual rings

19 Putting it all together Obtaining raw materials –sunlight leaves = solar collectors –CO 2 stomates = gas exchange –H 2 O uptake from roots –nutrients uptake from roots

20 Growing Cycles Perennials - live several years, and reproduce many times Ex. woody plants Annuals - plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season (grows, flowers, reproduces and dies) Biennials - take two growing seasons to complete, reproduces in the second growing season

21 Growing Cycles Plants grow only at their tips in regions called MERISTEMS PRIMARY GROWTH makes a plant taller at roots and stems SECONDARY GROWTH makes a plant wider, or adds woody tissue

22 How Old Is That Tree? Tree Rings tell age of a tree, each ring for one growing season.This tree is 4 yrs old. –Spring wood- lighter colored, larger tubes –Darker colored, narrower tubes VASCULAR CAMBIUM: makes xylem and phloem and forms the annual rings

23 Comparison of Monocots & Dicots

24 Monocots & dicots Angiosperm are divide into 2 classes –dicots (eudicot) 2 cotyledons (seed leaves) leaves with network of veins woody plants, trees, shrubs, beans –monocots 1 cotyledon leaves with parallel veins grasses, palms, lilies

25 Simple Tissues – consisting of one cell type Parenchyma – thin walled & alive at maturity; cells take different shapes. (storage, can change into other cells) Collenchyma – thick walled & alive at maturity (support) Sclerenchyma – thick walled and dead at maturity (support) –Sclerids or stone cells – cells that are as long as they are wide, very heavy cell walls –Fibers – cells longer than they are wide

26 Epidermis – alive at maturity –Trichomes – hairs on epidermis –Root Hairs – tubular extensions of epidermal cells

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