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STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY)  EUKARYOTES, PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER.

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Presentation on theme: "STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY)  EUKARYOTES, PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER."— Presentation transcript:

1 STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY)  EUKARYOTES, PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER  30 MEGA BASE PAIR GENOMES; SEVERAL CHROMOSOMES; 5,000 GENES  CELL WALL WITH CHITIN (N-ACETYL GLUCOSEAMINE POLYSACCHARIDE),  ABSORPTIVE NUTRITION,  LACK CHLOROPHYLL, NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS  FORM SPORES, NON-MOTILE,  TOLERATE DRYNESS, HIGH OSMOTIC PRESSURE, ACID AND ALKALINE ENVIRONMENTS  SAPROPHYTES - DECAY DEAD CREATURES (& PERMIT RECYLCING) - RELEASE HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES WHICH DIGEST EXTERNAL FOOD MYCOLOGY - 1

2  MOLDS - LONG, BRANCHED FILAMENTS - HYPHAE COENOCYTIC - NO PERPENDICULAR CROSS WALLS SEPTATE - WITH CROSS WALLS WITH PORES GROW BY EXTENSION, BRANCHING MYCELIUM - MASS OF HYPHAE - COLONY SPORES - DORMANT, CAN GERMINATE  YEASTS - UNICELLULAR, SINGLE NUCLEUS, BUD PROGENY (USUALLY)  DIMORPHIC FUNGI - SOME WHICH CAUSE DISEASE - YEAST FORM IN THE ANIMAL, FILAMENTOUS FORM ON CULTURE MEDIA 2

3 REPRODUCTION  ASEXUAL - MITOSIS FOLLOWED BY: TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING TWO EQUAL DAUGHTER CELLS BINARY FISSION BUDDING FORMING MOTHER CELL AND NEW BUD TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING SPORES WITHIN A HYPHA OR AT THE END  SEXUAL – HOMOTHALLIC - SELF-FERTILIZING, COMPATIBLE GAMETES ON THE SAME MYCELIUM HETEROTHALLIC - CROSSING BETWEEN DIFFERENT BUT COMPATIBLE MYCELIA. HAPLOID GAMETES FUSE; DIPLOID GAMETES; MEIOSIS, HAPLOID SPORES 3

4  ZYGOMYCETES COENOCYTIC - HAPLOID NUCLEI, HYPHA RHIZOIDS EXTEND DOWN INTO SUBSTRATE, ABSORB NUTRIENTS STOLONS - ERECT HYPHAE, FORM SPORANGIA WITH BLACK SPORANGIOSPORES E.G., COMMON BLACK BREAD MOLD: RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS  ASCOMYCETES SEPTATE HYPHAE, CONIDIOSPORES AT END OF CONIDIOPHORE ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS - UBIQUITOUS - HOMES, ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ASTHMA, SINUSITIS, OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN ESPECIALLY IN HIV+ PEOPLE ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS - AFLATOXINS PENICILLIUM NOTATUM - FIRST PENICILLIN PENICILLIUM ROQUEFORTI – CHEESE SOFTENING/RIPENING CLAVICEPS PURPUREA - ERGOT OF RYE – PLANT DISEASE ERGOTISM IN PEOPLE - ERGOT TOXIN - CONTAINS LYSERGIC ACID- USED TO SYNTHESIZE LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE -LSD VASOCONSTRICTION - GANGRENE, AMPUTATIONS NEUROTRANSMISSION - SEVERE BURNING SENSATION; HALLUCINATIONS, CONVULSIONS, DEATH COMMON – EUROPE – MIDDLE AGES 4

5 5  BASIDIOMYCETES MUSHROOMS - DIPLOID HYPHAE GROWING IN SOIL ASSEMBLE TO PUSH THROUGH SOIL; FORM CAP UNDER WHICH BASIDIOSPORES DEVELOP EDIBLE, BUT MUSHROOM POISONING

6 Rhizopus nigricans – Pin-head mold GERMINATING SPORE SPORANGIA HYPHA RHIZOID AERIAL HYPHA STOLON ABSORBING HYPHA 6

7 Rhizopus nigricans SPORANGIOSPORES IN SACS (SPORANGIA) SPORES 7

8 ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS – CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES 8

9 Penicillium notatum CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES 9

10 Penicillium roqueforti CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES 10

11 ROQUEFORT CHEESE BLUE-GREEN CONIDIOSPORES OF Penicillium roqueforti 11

12 LIFE OF A MUSHROOM NOT ASSIGNED 12 APPRECIATE !

13 I.DERMATOPHYTES – FUNGI ON, IN, UNDER SKIN, HAIR, NAILS A. SUPERFICIAL- ON OUTER SURFACES SKIN, HAIR, NAILS - TROPICS – SOAP AND WATER B. CUTANEOUS- WITHIN SKIN, HAIR, NAILS - RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON, OTHERS) - ATHLETE’S FOOT C. SUBCUTANEOUS - INTRODUCED THROUGH SKIN (PUNCTURE WOUNDS) - SPREAD ALONG LYMPH CHANNELS MYCOSES - FUNGAL INFECTIONS 13

14 14 FIG CUTANEOUS MYCOSIS RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON) p 1009

15 15 FIG SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSIS CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS (BLACK MOLDS, PHIALOPHORA) p 1010

16 II.SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS - INTERNAL A.HISTOPLASMOSIS - HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM DIMORPHIC MILD RESPIRATORY INFECTION - HEALTHY PEOPLE RECOVER WITHOUT KNOWING THEY HAD DISEASE ENDEMIC - OHIO RIVER VALLEY SEVERE DISEASE IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED B.COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS - COCCIDIODES IMMITIS DESERT FEVER - 95% MILD RESPIRATORY 5% TB-LIKE FEW: DISSEMINATES TO BRAIN, BONES, JOINTS, MENINGES DIMORPHIC C.CRYPTOCOCCOSIS – CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS RESPIRATORY TRACT > CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM MENINGITIS - INFLAMMATION OF MENINGES D.PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA – PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED 16

17 Pneumocystis carinii 17

18 14 Pneumocystis carinii PNEUMONIA 18

19 III. TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS – AMPHOTERICIN B - DISRUPTS MEMBRANE FUNCTION, TOXIC FOR PEOPLE FLUCONAZOLE - PROPHYLACTIC IN AIDS PATIENTS INHIBITS STEROL SYNTHESIS, AND THEREFORE NORMAL MEMBRANE FUNCTION IV.MYCOTOXINS - ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS – AFLATOXINS 19

20 V.CANDIDIASIS - THRUSH, MONILIASIS, WHITE PATCHES OF MOUTH, TONGUE, VAGINA CANDIDA ALBICANS - NORMAL FLORA YEAST C. ALBICANS FLOURISHES: IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PEOPLE, IN NORMAL HEALTH FOLK WHEN THEIRBACTERIAL FLORA IS DESTROYED - PROLONGED ANTIBIOTIC WHICH DESTROY PROKARYOTES VAGINITIS - DIABETES, ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES, ESPECIALLY DURING PREGNANCY DIAPER RASH TREATMENT - TOPICAL NYSTATIN - STREPTOMYCES ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM LEAKAGE MICONAZOLE - ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES MEMBRANE, DISRUPTS STEROLS SYNTHESIS 20

21 CANDIDA ALBICANSORAL THRUSH 21


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