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Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile

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Presentation on theme: "Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile
Aerobes or facultative anaerobes Chemoorganoheterotrophs Many are saprophytes Some are parasites

2 Cell walls similar in structure to plants but vary in chemical composition
Chitin, glucan, mannan Thallus (body) unicellular (yeasts) or multi-cellular (molds) Mycelium (molds) loosely organized mass of filamentous hyphae

3 Aspergillus niger

4 Dimorphic Fungi Most serious fungal pathogens Grow as yeast or mold
Depends on environmental conditions

5 Fungi typically reproduce by means of spores
sexual (meiotic) and asexual (mitotic) spores may be produced asexual fragmentation may occur

6 Spores are typically released from aerial hyphae in molds
Vegetative hyphae are involved in nutrient absorption

7 Asexual spores Typically wind dispersed
Commonly used to identify fungal pathogens Two types of asexual spores: Sporangiospore (inside sporangium sac) Conidiospore (Various forms, not formed in a sac)

8 Conidiospores Coccidioides Aspergillus Crypotococcus

9 Sporangiospores Rhizopus

10 Most yeasts reproduce asexually through budding
Form psudo-hyphae Saccharomyces Fission yeasts divide evenly to produce two cells Schizosaccharomyces

11 Fungi classified into divisions (phyla) according to sexual reproductive process:
Chytridiomycota (primitive fungi) Zygomycota (conjugation fungi) Ascomycota (sac fungi) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi) anamorphic fungi

12 Pathogenic Fungi Stachybotrys Aspergillus
the spores are inhaled causing serious forms of hemorrhagic pneumonia Produce several toxic chemicals called mycotoxins Aspergillus commonly grows as “mildew” in shower can cause opportunistic infections Inhaled soil spores can cause Aspergillosis

13 Pneumocystis Candida albicans severe pneumonia in AIDS patients
Causes skin level fungal infections of the mouth (oral thrush), groin (diaper rash), and the vagina (candida vaginitis) or “yeast infection” Dimorphic fungi that can cause serious systemic mycoses

14 Cryptococcus neoformans
cryptococcosis, one of the most serious fungal diseases worldwide major manifestation is meningoencephalitis has become increasingly important with the AIDS epidemic

15 Beneficial fungi Fungi decomposers in food webs
Most plants require association with Mycorrhizae Many fungi are a source of food                  

16 Saccharomyces Torulopsis Aspergillus Trichoderma
Fermentation of bread and alcoholic beverages Torulopsis protein supplements for humans and cattle Aspergillus produce citric acid for food and beverages Trichoderma fruit juice production

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