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Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile Aerobes or facultative anaerobes Chemoorganoheterotrophs –Many are saprophytes –Some are parasites.

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Presentation on theme: "Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile Aerobes or facultative anaerobes Chemoorganoheterotrophs –Many are saprophytes –Some are parasites."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fungi Mycology Avascular, typically not motile Aerobes or facultative anaerobes Chemoorganoheterotrophs –Many are saprophytes –Some are parasites

2 Cell walls similar in structure to plants but vary in chemical composition –Chitin, glucan, mannan Thallus (body) –unicellular (yeasts) or multi-cellular (molds) Mycelium (molds) –loosely organized mass of filamentous hyphae

3 Aspergillus niger

4 Dimorphic Fungi –Most serious fungal pathogens –Grow as yeast or mold –Depends on environmental conditions

5 Fungi typically reproduce by means of spores –sexual (meiotic) and asexual (mitotic) spores may be produced –asexual fragmentation may occur

6 Spores are typically released from aerial hyphae in molds Vegetative hyphae are involved in nutrient absorption

7 Typically wind dispersed Commonly used to identify fungal pathogens Two types of asexual spores: –Sporangiospore (inside sporangium sac) –Conidiospore (Various forms, not formed in a sac) Asexual spores

8 Conidiospores Aspergillus Coccidioides Crypotococcus

9 Sporangiospores Rhizopus

10 Most yeasts reproduce asexually through budding –Form psudo-hyphae –Saccharomyces Fission yeasts divide evenly to produce two cells –Schizosaccharomyces

11 Fungi classified into divisions (phyla) according to sexual reproductive process: –Chytridiomycota (primitive fungi) –Zygomycota (conjugation fungi) –Ascomycota (sac fungi) –Basidiomycota (club fungi) –Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi) anamorphic fungi

12 Pathogenic Fungi Stachybotrys –the spores are inhaled causing serious forms of hemorrhagic pneumonia –Produce several toxic chemicals called mycotoxins Aspergillus –commonly grows as “mildew” in shower –can cause opportunistic infections –Inhaled soil spores can cause Aspergillosis

13 Pneumocystis –severe pneumonia in AIDS patients Candida albicans – Causes skin level fungal infections of the mouth (oral thrush), groin (diaper rash), and the vagina (candida vaginitis) or “yeast infection” –Dimorphic fungi that can cause serious systemic mycoses

14 Cryptococcus neoformans –cryptococcosis, one of the most serious fungal diseases worldwide –major manifestation is meningoencephalitis –has become increasingly important with the AIDS epidemic

15 Beneficial fungi Fungi decomposers in food webs Most plants require association with Mycorrhizae Many fungi are a source of food

16 Saccharomyces –Fermentation of bread and alcoholic beverages Torulopsis –protein supplements for humans and cattle Aspergillus –produce citric acid for food and beverages Trichoderma –fruit juice production


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