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Head, Development and Quality Assurance Unit

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1 Head, Development and Quality Assurance Unit
Kingdom Fungi Dr. ROD ALFONSO Head, Development and Quality Assurance Unit

2 Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson, students will be able to: Compare and contrast Deuteromycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota in terms of characteristics, type of reproduction, and specific examples

3 IMPORTANT DIVISIONS OF FUNGI 1. Deuteromycota: “Imperfect fungi”
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle Reproduce asexually. Pneumocystis carinii: Causes pneumonia in AIDS patients. Leading cause of death in AIDS patients. Originally classified as a protozoan. Candida albicans: Causes yeast infections of vagina in women. Opportunistic infections of mucous membranes in AIDS patients.

4 Opportunistic Infection by Candida albicans in an AIDS Patient
Source: Atlas of Clinical Oral Pathology, 1999

5 2. Zygomycota (Conjugation Fungi)
Also known as bread molds. Saprophytic molds with coenocytic hyphae (lack septa). Asexual Reproduction: Used most of the time. Sporangiospore: Asexual spore enclosed within a sporangium or sac at the end on an aerial hypha. Sexual Reproduction: Occurs through conjugation, the joining of hypha of two different strains (plus and minus). Zygospores: Sexual spores which are enclosed in a thick, resistant wall. Generally not pathogens. Rhizopus nigricans: Common black bread mold. May cause opportunistic infections in diabetes patients

6 Rhizopus on Strawberries

7 3. Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
Molds with septate hyphae and some yeasts. Asexual Reproduction: Conidiospores not enclosed in a sac. Become airborne easily. Form chains (broom-like structures). Sexual Reproduction: Ascospores enclosed in a sac-like structure (ascus). Include common antibiotic producing fungi and yeasts, and several human pathogens. Penicillium notatum (Produces penicillin) Saccharomyces (Brewer’s yeast) Trychophyton (Athlete’s foot) Aspergillus (Carcinogenic aflatoxin in peanuts), Blastomyces (Respiratory infections) Histoplasma capsulatum (Respiratory and systemic infections)

8 4. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
Have septate hyphae. Include mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, and smuts. Sexual Reproduction: Produce basidiospores: Spores formed externally on a club shaped sexual structure or base called basidium. Asexual Reproduction: Through hyphae. Examples: Cryptococcus: Causes opportunistic respiratory and CNS infections in AIDS patients. Amanita: Mushroom produces lethal toxins to humans. Claviceps purpurea: Produces ergot toxin in wheat and rye.

9 Molds with septate hyphae
Deuteromycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Characteristics Imperfect fungi Conjugation fungi Bread molds Molds with septate hyphae Some yeasts With septate hyphae Mushrooms, toadstools, rust & smuts Type of Reproduction asexual Sexual: conjugation zygospores Asexual: sporangiospore Sexual: ascospores Asexual: conidiospores Sexual: basidiospores Asexual: through hyphae Specific Examples Pneumocystis carinii Candida albicans Rhizopus nigricans Penicillium notatum Sacharomyces cereviciae Aspergillus Trychophyton Cryptococcus Amanita Claviceps purpurea

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