Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi Dr. ROD ALFONSO Head, Development and Quality Assurance Unit."— Presentation transcript:
Kingdom Fungi Dr. ROD ALFONSO Head, Development and Quality Assurance Unit
Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson, students will be able to: 1. Compare and contrast Deuteromycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota in terms of characteristics, type of reproduction, and specific examples
IMPORTANT DIVISIONS OF FUNGI 1. Deuteromycota: “Imperfect fungi” u -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle u Reproduce asexually. *Pneumocystis carinii: Causes pneumonia in AIDS patients. Leading cause of death in AIDS patients. Originally classified as a protozoan. * Candida albicans: Causes yeast infections of vagina in women. Opportunistic infections of mucous membranes in AIDS patients.
Opportunistic Infection by Candida albicans in an AIDS Patient Source: Atlas of Clinical Oral Pathology, 1999
2. Zygomycota (Conjugation Fungi) u Also known as bread molds. u Saprophytic molds with coenocytic hyphae (lack septa). u Asexual Reproduction: Used most of the time. Sporangiospore: Asexual spore enclosed within a sporangium or sac at the end on an aerial hypha. u Sexual Reproduction: Occurs through conjugation, the joining of hypha of two different strains (plus and minus). Zygospores: Sexual spores which are enclosed in a thick, resistant wall. u Generally not pathogens. *Rhizopus nigricans: Common black bread mold. May cause opportunistic infections in diabetes patients
Rhizopus on Strawberries
3. Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) u Molds with septate hyphae and some yeasts. u Asexual Reproduction: Conidiospores not enclosed in a sac. Become airborne easily. Form chains (broom-like structures). u Sexual Reproduction: Ascospores enclosed in a sac-like structure (ascus). u Include common antibiotic producing fungi and yeasts, and several human pathogens. *Penicillium notatum (Produces penicillin) *Saccharomyces (Brewer’s yeast) *Trychophyton (Athlete’s foot) *Aspergillus (Carcinogenic aflatoxin in peanuts), *Blastomyces (Respiratory infections) *Histoplasma capsulatum (Respiratory and systemic infections)
4. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) u Have septate hyphae. u Include mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, and smuts. u Sexual Reproduction: Produce basidiospores: Spores formed externally on a club shaped sexual structure or base called basidium. u Asexual Reproduction: Through hyphae. u Examples: u Cryptococcus: Causes opportunistic respiratory and CNS infections in AIDS patients. u Amanita: Mushroom produces lethal toxins to humans. u Claviceps purpurea: Produces ergot toxin in wheat and rye.
DeuteromycotaZygomycotaAscomycotaBasidiomycota Characteristics Imperfect fungiConjugation fungi Bread molds Molds with septate hyphae Some yeasts With septate hyphae Mushrooms, toadstools, rust & smuts Type of Reproduction asexualSexual: conjugation zygospores Asexual: sporangiospore Sexual: ascospores Asexual: conidiospores Sexual: basidiospores Asexual: through hyphae Specific Examples Pneumocystis carinii Candida albicans Rhizopus nigricans Penicillium notatum Sacharomyces cereviciae Aspergillus Trychophyton Cryptococcus Amanita Claviceps purpurea