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Medical Microbiology Chapter 7 Fungal Classification, Structure, and Replication.

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1 Medical Microbiology Chapter 7 Fungal Classification, Structure, and Replication

2 Importance of Fungi Fungi are ubiquitous and diverse Fungi are ubiquitous and diverse They have recently emerged as significant pathogens They have recently emerged as significant pathogens Especially among immunocompromised and hospitalized individuals Especially among immunocompromised and hospitalized individuals Table 7-1 Table 7-1 According to your book, “there are no nonpathogenic fungi!” According to your book, “there are no nonpathogenic fungi!”

3 Fungi Fungi are eukaryotic cells Fungi are eukaryotic cells Problem with treatment? Problem with treatment? They contain a rigid cell wall made of chitin and glucan They contain a rigid cell wall made of chitin and glucan They also have ergosterol in their membranes They also have ergosterol in their membranes Figure 7-1 Figure 7-1

4 Fungi Morphologies: Morphologies: Yeasts – single-celled organisms Yeasts – single-celled organisms Replication by budding or fission Replication by budding or fission May produce pseudohyphae May produce pseudohyphae Produce colonies on agar Produce colonies on agar Molds – multicellular organisms Molds – multicellular organisms Consist of hyphae that form a mat-like structure called a mycelium Consist of hyphae that form a mat-like structure called a mycelium Dimorphic Fungi – can be found as either yeasts or molds Dimorphic Fungi – can be found as either yeasts or molds Figures 7-2 and 7-3 Figures 7-2 and 7-3

5 Human Mycoses Mycosis – infection caused by a fungus Mycosis – infection caused by a fungus Superficial mycoses – limited to very superficial surfaces of skin and hair Superficial mycoses – limited to very superficial surfaces of skin and hair Of cosmetic importance only Of cosmetic importance only Figures 72-3 and 72-5 Figures 72-3 and 72-5 Cutaneous mycoses – infections of the skin, hair, and nails Cutaneous mycoses – infections of the skin, hair, and nails Signs and symptoms – itching, scaling, broken hairs, ring-like patch on the skin, thickened, discolored nails. Signs and symptoms – itching, scaling, broken hairs, ring-like patch on the skin, thickened, discolored nails. Caused by “dermatophytes” Caused by “dermatophytes” Figures 72-14, 72-15, and 72-16 Figures 72-14, 72-15, and 72-16

6 Human Mycoses Subcutaneous mycoses – infections of the deeper tissues Subcutaneous mycoses – infections of the deeper tissues Can cause abscesses and non-healing ulcers Can cause abscesses and non-healing ulcers Figures 73-1, 73-5, 73-8, and 73-9 Figures 73-1, 73-5, 73-8, and 73-9 Endemic Mycoses – systemic infections Endemic Mycoses – systemic infections Fungi exhibit thermal dimorphism Fungi exhibit thermal dimorphism Can infect healthy individuals Can infect healthy individuals Generally confined to specific areas Generally confined to specific areas Figures 74-2, 74-5, 74-6, 74-12, and 74-14 Figures 74-2, 74-5, 74-6, 74-12, and 74-14

7 Human Mycoses Opportunistic Mycoses – normally non- pathogenic fungi Opportunistic Mycoses – normally non- pathogenic fungi Candida spp. – thrush, vaginal yeast infections, other more serious infections Candida spp. – thrush, vaginal yeast infections, other more serious infections Cryptococcus neoformans – pulmonary and CNS infections Cryptococcus neoformans – pulmonary and CNS infections Figure 75-10 Figure 75-10 Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus spp. others others

8 Disease of the Day “The Terminator” article “The Terminator” article

9 Summary Summary – page 73 Summary – page 73


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