2Monday November 8, 2010There will be no grades given out until this Friday. Please do not ask!HW-Read 11-1 and do the section review on page 273, questions 1-10 due Wed. Use spiral notebook.
3Section 1 - Protists Objectives Describe the characteristics of protists.Describe four ways that protists get food.Describe three ways that protists reproduce.s
4Protists share some traits. A protist is a member of the Kingdom Protista.All protists are eukaryotes, which means that their cells have a nucleus. They are less complex than other eukaryotic organisms.Protista are related more by how they differ than how they are similar.Some scientists think that Kingdom Protista should be divided into several kingdoms
5Protists are diverse.Protists are very diverse and have few traits in common.Some protists control their own movement, others cannot
6Protists and FoodSome protists produce their own food. They are producers.Some eat other organisms.Some eat decaying matter.
7HeterotrophsThe protists that must get their food from their environment are heterotrophs.Many heterotrophs eat small living organisms, such as bacteria, yeast or other protists.Some are decomposers and eat decaying matter.
8Slime Molds Some protists get energy in more than one way. Slime molds get energy by engulfing both small organisms and particles of organic matter.
9Parasites Some heterotrophs are parasites. An organism that a parasite invades is called a host.Parasites cause harm to their host.They may invade fungi, plants or animals.
10Potato FamineDuring the mid 1800’s, a parasitic protist wiped out most of the potatoes in Ireland.Many people died of starvation.
11Protist Reproduction Like all living things, Protist reproduce. Some reproduce sexually.Most reproduce asexually, by binary fission, like Euglena.
12Binary FissionBinary fission is reproduction in which one single-celled organism splits into two single-celled organisms.Some single-celled protists use multiple fission to make more than two offspring from one parent.Each new cell is a single-celled protist.
13Protist Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction requires two parents.Member of the genus Paramecium sometimes reproduce sexually by a process called conjugation.
15ConjugationDuring conjugation two individuals join together and exchange genetic material by using a small second nucleus.Then they divide to produce four protists that have new combinations of genetic material.
16Protists Producers Many protists can reproduce sexually and asexually. In some protist producers, the kind of reproduction alternates by generation.A parent will reproduce asexually, and its offspring will reproduce sexually.Other protists reproduce asexually until environmental conditions become stresssful, lack of water or food, and then they will use sexual reproduction.
17Reproductive Cycles Some protists have complex reproductive cycles. These protists may change forms many times, such as the Plasmodium Vivax, which causes malaria.
19Section 2 - Kinds of Protists ObjectivesDescribe how protists can be organized into three groups based on their shared traits.List an example for each group of protists.
20Journal EntryDo you know what algae is? Have you ever seen it? What does it look like? Algae needs a lot of water in order to live. Where do you suppose most algae live?Record and illustrate your answers in your science journal.
21Kinds of Protists Protists are organized into three groups Producers Heterotrophs that can moveHeterotrophs that cannot move
22Examples of Producers Red algae Green algae Brown algae Diatoms DinoflagellatesEuglenoids
23ProducersMany protists are producers which use the sun’s energy to make food through photosynthesis.These protist producers are known as algae.
24AlgaeAll algae have the green pigment chlorophyll, which is used for making food.Most algae have other pigments that give them a color.Most algae live in water.
25Many-Celled Algae Some algae are made of many cells. Many-celled algae generally live in shallow water along the shore. You know these algae as seaweeds.
26Single-Celled AlgaeFree floating single-celled algae are called phytoplankton.These algae cannot be seen without a microscope.They float near the water’s surface.
27PhytoplanktonPhytoplankton provide food for most other organisms in the water.They also produce much of the world’s oxygen.
28Red Algae Most of the world’s seaweeds are red algae. Red algae live in tropical oceans, attached to rocks or other algae.Red algae are usually less than 1 m in length.
29Green AlgaeThe green algae are the most diverse group of protist producers.They are green because chlorophyll is the main pigment in their cells. Most live in water or moist soil.Others live in snow, tree trunks and inside other organisms.
30Single-celled Green Algae Many green algae are single celled.Individual cells of green algae, like Volvox, live in groups called colonies.
31Brown AlgaeMost of the seaweeds found in cool climates are brown algae.They attach to rocks or form large floating beds in ocean waters with only the top part exposed to sunlight.They have chlorophyll and a yellow-brown pigment.
32DiatomsDiatoms are single-celled, found in both salt water and fresh water.They make up a large part of the phytoplankton.The cell walls contain a glasslike substance called silica.The cells are enclosed in a two part shell.
33Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates are single celled. Most live in salt water, but a few live in fresh water and even snow.They have two whip like strands called flagella.The beating of the flagella causes the cells to spin through the water.
34Euglenoids They are single celled protists that live in fresh water They use their flagella to move through the water.Many are producers but some become heterotrophs when there is not enough light to make food.Others do not have chlorophyll and must always get food.
35Euglenoids Digestion occurs in a food vacuole. Oxygen passes through the cell membrane.The food vacuole joins with the cell membrane to release waste.They have an eyespot and respond to light.
36Structure of a Euglenoid Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll.Most euglenoids have two flagella, short and long.They can’t see but they have eyespots sense light.A contractile vacuole holds excess water and removes it from the cell.
37Heterotrophs that can Move Some heterotrophic protists have special traits that allow them to move and are known as protozoans.Those that can move are usually single-celled consumers or parasites.Some examples are:AmoebasShelled amoeba-like protistsZooflagellatesCiliates
38AmoebasAmoebas are jellylike protozoans, found in both salt and fresh water, in soil and as parasites in animals.They look shapeless but are highly structured.They have vacuoles to get rid of excess water.
39AmoebasMany amoebas eat bacteria and small protists, but some are parasites that get food by invading other organisms.Certain amoebas live in human intestines and cause dysentery which causes internal bleeding.
40Amoebic MovementAmoebas and amoeba-like protists move with pseudopodia, which means “false feet”.To move the amoeba stretches a pseudopod out from the cell and then the cells flows into the pseudopod.
41Amoebas Catching Food Pseudopodias are also used to catch food. When it sense a food source, it moves toward the food and surrounds it, forming a food vacuole.Enzymes move into the vacuole to digest the food and the digested food passes into the amoeba.
42Amoebas and waste Amoebas reverse the process to get rid of wastes. A waste-filled vacuole is moved to the edge of the cell and released.
43Amoeba Amoeba proteus can sense light and tends to move away from it. Just before it reproduces, it rounds up into a ball with tiny pseudopodia extensions. Over the next 15 minutes or so, it splits and becomes two. Image below shows one amoeba in the final stages of splitting. Look carefully and you can see the clear channel between the two new amoebas.
44Shelled Amoeba-like Protists Not all amoeba-like protists look shapeless, some have an outer shell.Radiolarian shells look like glass ornaments.Foraminiferans have snail-like shells. They move by poking pseudopods out the pores in the shell.
45ZooflagellatesZooflagellates are protists that wave flagella back and forth to move.Some live in water. Others live in the bodies of other organisms.
46Zooflagellates and Parasites Some zooflagellates are parasites that cause disease.Giardia lamblia can live in the digestive tract of many vertebrates., causing severe stomach cramps.
47Zooflagellates and Mutualism Some zooflagellates live in mutualism with other organisms, each helping the other live.The zooflagellate that lives in the gut of termites digests the cell walls of the wood that termites eat and in return the termite gives the protist food and a place to live.
48CiliatesCiliates are complex protists. They have hundreds of tiny hair-like structures known as cilia which they use for both moving and feeding.The best known ciliate is Paramecium.
49Structure of a Paramecium The cell of a paramecium has two kinds of nuclei.A large nucleus called a macronucleus controls the function of the cell.A smaller nucleus, the micronucleus, passes genes to another paramecium during sexual reproduction.
50Stentor The stentor moves using cilia. It creates a whirlpools to suck in food and is sometimes called the trumpet cell.It is large enough that it can sometimes be seen without the microscope. It forms a ball in order to look larger.Digestion occurs in a food vacuole.Oxygen is diffused or released through the cell membrane. Food vacuoles join with the cell membrane to release waste.
51Stentors and MovementWhen stentors are traveling, they are not in the typical trumpet shape, but contract into a more oval shape.The cilia on the trumpet bell closes up, and the cilia on the body are used for locomotion.
52Stentors and Reproduction Stentors have a rather complex reproductive cycle. Here a stentor undergoing division.They use a micronucelus for reproduction.
53Heterotrophs that cannot Move Not all protists heterotrophs can move.Some of these protists are parasites that do not move.Others can move only at certain phases in their life cycle.Some examples are:Spore-forming ProtistsWater MoldsSlime Molds
54Spore Forming Protists Many spore-forming protists are parasites.They absorb nutrients from their hosts.They have no cilia or flaglella to move.They have complicated life cycles that involve two hosts like the protist, P. Vivax that causes malaria.
55Water MoldsWater molds are also heterotrophic protists that can’t move.Most water molds are small and single-celled.Many live in water, moist soil or other organisms, but some are decomposers Many are parasites.
56Slime MoldsSlime molds are heterotrophic protists that can move only at certain phases of their life cycle.They look like thin, colorful shapeless globs of slime.They live in cool moist places in the woods.
57Slime MoldsSome live as a giant cell that has many nuclei and a single cytoplasm at one stage of life. As long as food and water are available, it will grow.Others live as single cells which can come together when times are stressful.
58Slime Mold Reproduction When environmental conditions are stressful slime molds grow stalk-like structures with rounded knobs at the top, containing spores. Spore are small reproductive cells covered by a thick cell wall. The spores can survive for a long time without water or nutrients.
59Section 3- Fungi Objectives Describe the characteristics of fungi. Distinguish between the four main groups of fungi.Explain how lichens affect their environment.
60November 2010 Journal Entry Many people love to eat mushrooms. What are mushrooms? There are many different types of edible mushrooms. How many can you name that you’ve eaten? How many mushrooms can you name that are available at your grocery store to eat?Record your answers in your science journal.
61Fungi Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that have rigid cell walls and no chlorophyll.
63Food for FungiMost fungi are consumers that they get their nutrients by secreting digestive juices on their surroundings and absorbing the food.Many are decomposers and others are parasites.
64Fungus and MutualismSome live in mutualism, called mycorrhiza, with other organisms.Fungi grow on or in the roots of a plant which provides nutrients to fungus. The fungus helps the root absorb minerals and protects the plant from disease.
65Hyphae Many celled fungi are made up of chains of cells called hyphae. Hyphae are threadlike fungal filaments.These filaments are made of cells that have openings in their cell walls. These openings allow cytoplasm to move freely between cells.
66MyceliumMost of the hyphae that make up a fungus grows together to form a twisted mass called the mycelium .The mycelium makes up the major part of the fungus but most of it is hidden underneath the ground.
68Fungal Reproduction Reproduction may be sexual or asexual. Asexual reproduction occurs in two ways.The hyphae may break apart and each becomes a new fungus or spores are produced and spread.
69Kinds of FungiFungi are classified based on their shape and the way that they reproduce.There are four main groups of fungi:Threadlike fungiSac fungiClub fungiImperfect fungi
70Threadlike FungiMost threadlike fungi live in the soil and are decomposers.Some threadlike fungi are parasites.A black bread mold is an example of something that belongs to this group.
71Threadlike Fungi Asexual Reproduction Threadlike fungi can reproduce asexually. Parts of the hyphae grow into the air and form spore cases at the tip, called sporangia. When they break open they are released into the air.
72Threadlike Fungi Sexual Reproduction Threadlike Fungi reproduce sexually when a hypha from one individual joins with a hypha from another individual. The hyphae grow into specialized sporangia that can survive times of cold or little water. When conditions improve, they will grow into a new fungi.
73Sac FungiSac Fungi area the largest group of fungi which includes yeasts, mildew, They can reproduce both sexually and asexually.When they reproduce sexually they form a sac called an ascus. Spores develop within the sac.
74Sac Fungi - Yeast Yeasts are single-celled sac fungi. When they reproduce asexually, they use a process called budding.In budding a new cell pinches off from an existing cell.
75Uses of Yeast Yeast are used to make breads and alcohols. Yeasts use sugar as food and produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol as waste. Trapped bubbles of carbon dioxide cause the bread to rise.
76Other Uses of YeastYeast is also used to make antibiotics
77Some Yeast are prized Foods Some yeasts, such as truffles and morels, are prized as human foods.
78Sac Fungi - ParasitesSome sac fungi are parasites and cause Dutch elm disease which is harmful to the tree.
79Club Fungi The umbrella-shaped mushrooms are the most familiar fungi. The group gets its name from structures that the fungi grow during reproduction.Club fungi reproduce sexually by growing special hyphae that form clublike structures.
80BasidiaThese clublike structures are called basidia from the Greek word for clubs. Sexual spores develop on the basidia.
81Gill FungiThe most familiar mushrooms are known as gill fungi. The basidia of these mushrooms develop in structures called gills, under the mushroom cap.Some are sold in grocery stores, while others are very poisionous.
82Nonmushroom Club Fungi Mushrooms are not the only club fungi.Bracket fungi grow outward from wood and from small shelves.Smuts and rusts are plant parasites that attach corn and wheat.
83Imperfect FungiThe imperfect fungi group includes all of the species that do not fit. They do not reproduce sexually.Most are parasites that causes diseases in plants and animals.One common human disease is athlete’s foot.
84Useful Imperfect Fungi Peniciliium is the fungi that is the source of the antibiotic Penicillin.Other imperfect fungi produce some cheeses, soy sauce and the citric acid used in cola drinks.
85LichenA lichen is a combination of a fungus and an alga that grow together. The alga lives inside the protective wall of the fungus.The merging of the two is so complete that scientists give lichens their own scientific name.
86Lichen Unlike fungi, lichen are producers. The algae produces food through photosynthesis. Lichens keep the algae from drying out.Lichens can be found in almost any environment.
87LichenBecause lichens need only air, light and minerals to grow, they can grow on rocks.As lichens grow, the changes they make to their surroundings allow other organisms to live there also.They break down the rock and as they die, they form soil from the decaying matter.
88Lichens and Air Pollution Lichens absorb water and minerals from the air.As a result, they are easily affected by air pollution.The presence or absence of lichens is a good indication of the quality of the surrounding air.