6 Protists are difficult to classify. Protista is one kingdom in the domain Eukarya.
7 Protist classification will likely change. Some protists are not closely related.Molecular evidence supports reclassification.
8 KEY CONCEPT Animal-like protists are single-celled heterotrophs that can move.
9 Animal-like protists move in various ways. Animal-like protists are often called protozoa.macronucleusfood vacuoleoral groovemicronucleuscontractile vacuolecilia
10 Protozoa with flagella are zooflagellates. flagella help zooflagellates swimmore than 2000 zooflagellates
11 change shape as they move Some protists move with pseudopods.change shape as they moveamoebas
12 Some protists move with pseudopods. change shape as they move amoebasforaminifera
13 cilia help protists swim and capture food Some protozoa move with cilia.cilia help protists swim and capture foodmore than 8000 ciliatesmacronucleusfood vacuoleoral groovemicronucleuscontractile vacuolecilia
14 Some animal-like protists cause disease. Protists cause some well-known infectious diseases.sporozoiteshuman liverliver cellsdevelopedparasitesred bloodcellsMalaria is caused by Plasmodium and spread by mosquitoes.Sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma and spread by flies.A giardia infection is caused by Giardia and spread through water.Malaria Infection
16 Plantlike protists can be single-celled or multicellular. Photosynthetic plantlike protists are called algae.colonydaughter colony
17 mostly photosynthetic Euglenoids are a large group of plantlike protists.mostly photosyntheticsome heterotrophicsingle-celledone or two flagellapelliclenucleuschloroplasteye spotcontractilevacuoleflagellum
18 have stiff protective plates Dinoflagellates are mostly marine plantlike protists.have two flagellamay be bioluminescenthave stiff protective platescan cause red tideDinoflagellates
19 produce large amounts of oxygen Diatoms are plantlike protists with glasslike shells.shells made of silicaproduce large amounts of oxygen
20 Multicellular algae are classified by their pigments. Green algae contain chlorophyll a and b.Brown algae contain chlorophyll c.Red algae contain chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin.
21 Many plantlike protists can reproduce both sexually and asexually. All algae can reproduce asexually.Multicellular algae can fragment.Chlamydomonas divides into zoospores.
22 Some algae produce sexually. Some species alternate generations.Sexual reproduction can be triggered by environmental stress.
24 Slime molds and water molds are funguslike protists. Slime molds have both funguslike and animallike traits.decomposers, like fungican move, like animals
25 Slime molds can be plasmodial or cellular. Plasmodial slime molds are giant cells with many nuclei.Cellular slime molds contain independent cells.
26 Water molds are freshwater, funguslike protists. one type of water mold caused Great Potato Famine of Ireland in the 1800’smade of branching strands of cellscan be parasites of plants or fish
27 KEY CONCEPT Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb their food.
28 Fungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment. Plants and fungi have different traits.Fungal cell walls are made of chitin.Plant cell walls are made of cellulose.Plants have chlorophyll and photosynthesize.Fungi absorb food through hyphae.
29 Fungi are multicellular organisms, with the exception of yeasts. hyphaemycelliumfruiting body
30 Fungi come in many shapes and sizes. Primitive fungi are aquatic and have flagellated spores.Sac fungi form a reproductive sac, or ascus.Yeasts are single-celled sac fungi.Morels and truffles are multicellular sac fungi.
31 Bread molds are often found on spoiled food. form zygospores during reproductionmycorrhizae belong to this group
32 Club fungi have fruiting bodies which are club-shaped. reproductive structures called basidiainclude mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi
33 Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually. Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.Yeasts reproduce asexually through budding.Yeasts form asci during sexual reproduction.
38 KEY CONCEPT Fungi recycle nutrients in the environment.
39 Fungi may be decomposers, pathogens, or mutualists. Fungi and bacteria are the main decomposers in any ecosystem.decompose dead leaves, twigs, logs, and animalsreturn nutrients to the soilcan damage fruit trees and wooden structures
40 Fungi can act as pathogens. human diseases include ringworm and athlete’s footplant diseases include Dutch elm disease
41 Fungi can act as mutualists. lichens form between fungi and algae mycorrhizae form between fungi and plants
42 Fungi can act as mutualists. relationships form between fungi and some insects
43 Fungi are studied for many purposes. Fungi are useful in several ways.as foodas antibioticsas model systems for molecular biology