2 Similarities and Differences in the Protist Kingdom All are eukaryotes (cells with nuclei).Live in moist surroundings.Unicellular or multicellular.Autotrophs, heterotrophs, or both.Some can move - others cannot.
3 3 categories of Protists: Animal-likeFungus-likePlant-like
4 Animal-like Protists (Protozoans) *Unicellular Heterotrophs*Four groups based on movement: those with flagella, cilia, pseudopods, and the ‘others’.
5 Protozoans with Pseudopods Pseudopods also called ‘false feet’Cell membrane pushes in one direction & the cytoplasm flows into the bulge.This allows the protozoan to move, dragging the rest of the cell behind it.
6 EXAMPLE OF HOW PSEUDOPODS MOVE Pseudopod MovementEXAMPLE OF HOW PSEUDOPODS MOVEFLOWPUSHDRAG
7 Pseudopods & FeedingThey can form pseudopods to surround & trap food. Then form a food vacuole to break down food in the cytoplasm.
8 Pseudopods Reproduce by mitosis Contractile vacuole - it collects extra H2O & expels it from cellThin cell membraneNo definite shape.Example - Amoeba
9 Protozoans with ciliaCilia - hairlike structures - help organisms move, get food and sense environment.Multicellular with 2 nuclei.1 nuclei controls everyday functions1 nuclei is for reproduction.Reproduce by mitosis orconjugation.
10 CiliatesOral groove lined with cilia - moves H20 containing food into food vacuole at end of oral groove.Food vacuole breaks down food and sends through cell.Anal pore sends out waste.Example of protozoan w/ cilia: paramecium.
12 Protozoans with flagella Organisms called zooflagellatesUse long whiplike part called flagella to move.These usually live inside other organisms.
13 Other Protozoans Called sporozoans - parasites Feed on cells & body fluids of hostsSporozoans like Plasmodium (causes malaria) have more than 1 host: mosquitoes and then humans
14 Funguslike Protists Like animals, they are heterotrophs Like plants, they have cell wallsReproduce by spores (tiny cells that can grow into a new organism)Not in fungi kingdom because they can move at one point in their lives.Example are water or slime molds.
15 Plantlike Protists Better known as algae Autotrophs Size: unicellular to very largeContain different pigments so they come in different colors.Euglena: special type of algae -when there is no sunlight they become heterotrophic.
16 Fungi Kingdom Eukaryotes Use spores to reproduce Heterotrophs that feed in a similar wayNeed warm, moist places to growExamples: yeast, molds, mildew, and mushrooms
18 The Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are NOT plantsNonphotosyntheticEukaryotesNonmotileMost are saprobes (live on dead organisms)
19 The Characteristics of Fungi Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food first & then absorb it into their bodiesRelease digestive enzymes to break down organic material or their hostStore food energy as glycogenBREAD MOLD
20 The Characteristics of Fungi Important decomposers & recyclers of nutrients in the environmentMost are multicellular, except unicellular yeastLack true roots, stems or leavesMULTICELLULAR MUSHROOMUNICELLULAR YEAST
21 The Characteristics of Fungi Some fungi are internal or external parasitesA few fungi act like predators & capture prey like roundwormsPredaceous Fungi feeding on a Nematode (roundworm)
22 The Characteristics of Fungi Some are edible, while others are poisonousEDIBLEPOISONOUS
23 Fungi -Obtaining food Use a structure called hyphae to get their food. Except for yeast which are unicellular.Hyphae: threadlike, cytoplasm-filled tubes with nucleiShape of fungi depends on how hyphae used.AND...
24 The fungal hyphae grows into food then secrete digestive chemicals into food & absorb it Stolons – horizontal hyphaeRhizoids- hyphae forming rootlike structures
25 Reproduction in FungiProduce thousands of spores with a protective covering: carried by water and air.spores land in a warm, moist place they form more fungiAND...
26 Reproduction in FungiWhen there is plenty of moisture, fungi reproduce asexually by releasing spores.When conditions are not good, they reproduce sexually.
27 Yeast are unicellular, they reproduce by budding Yeast are unicellular, they reproduce by budding. A well fed cell grows from the body of the mother cell and breaks off from the mother.
29 Major Groups of FungiWithin the past few years, several groups have been re-classified into the protistsTwo of these groups are the slime molds and water molds
30 Classification by Nutrition SaprobesDecomposersMolds, mushrooms, etc.ParasitesHarm hostRusts and smuts (attack plants)MutualistsBoth benefitLichensMycorrhizasfungi absorb nutrients from nonliving organisms.Parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from the cells of living hosts. SaprobicSome parasitic fungi, including some that infect humans and plants, are pathogenic.Mutualistic fungi also absorb nutrients from a host organism, but they reciprocate with functions that benefit their partner in some way
31 Major Groups of Fungi Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Zygomycota – Bread MoldsChytridiomycota – ChytridsAM Fungi - MycorrhizasAscomycota – Sac FungiLichens – Symbiosis (algae & Fungi)
32 Four classifications of Fungi Threadlike - produce spores in their threadlike hyphae (ex. Bread mold)Saclike - produce spores in structures that look like sacs (ex. Yeast)
33 Club - produce spores in structures that look like clubs (ex Club - produce spores in structures that look like clubs (ex. Mushrooms)Imperfect - those that cannot reproduce sexually (ex. Penicillin)