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Kingdom Fungi Chapter 26. Learning Objective 1 What are the distinguishing characteristics of kingdom Fungi? What are the distinguishing characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi Chapter 26. Learning Objective 1 What are the distinguishing characteristics of kingdom Fungi? What are the distinguishing characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi Chapter 26

2 Learning Objective 1 What are the distinguishing characteristics of kingdom Fungi? What are the distinguishing characteristics of kingdom Fungi?

3 Fungi Eukaryotic heterotrophs Eukaryotic heterotrophs Secrete digestive enzymes onto food Secrete digestive enzymes onto food then absorb predigested food then absorb predigested food Cell walls with chitin Cell walls with chitin

4 KEY CONCEPTS Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from their surroundings Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from their surroundings

5 Learning Objective 2 What is the body plan of a fungus? What is the body plan of a fungus?

6 Fungi Structures Fungi include Fungi include unicellular yeast unicellular yeast filamentous, multicellular mold filamentous, multicellular mold Most multicellular fungi Most multicellular fungi have long, threadlike filaments (hyphae) have long, threadlike filaments (hyphae) branch and form a tangled mass (mycelium) branch and form a tangled mass (mycelium)

7 Insert “Mycelium” mycelium.swf

8 Learn more about mycelium by clicking on the figure in ThomsonNOW.

9 Hyphae In most fungi In most fungi perforated septa (cross walls) divide hyphae into individual cells perforated septa (cross walls) divide hyphae into individual cells In some fungi In some fungi zygomycetes and glomeromycetes zygomycetes and glomeromycetes hyphae are coenocytic (form elongated, multinuclear cell) hyphae are coenocytic (form elongated, multinuclear cell)

10 Fungus Body Plan

11 Fig (a-b), p. 557 Hyphae 25 µm

12 Fig (c-e), p. 557

13 KEY CONCEPTS A fungus may be a unicellular yeast or a filamentous, multicellular mold consisting of long, branched hyphae that form a mycelium A fungus may be a unicellular yeast or a filamentous, multicellular mold consisting of long, branched hyphae that form a mycelium

14 Learning Objective 3 What is the life cycle of a typical fungus, including sexual and asexual reproduction? What is the life cycle of a typical fungus, including sexual and asexual reproduction?

15 Reproduction Most fungi reproduce sexually and asexually by spores Most fungi reproduce sexually and asexually by spores Spores Spores produced on aerial hyphae produced on aerial hyphae land in suitable spot and germinate land in suitable spot and germinate

16 Germination of a Spore

17 Fig. 26-2, p. 557 Spore Hypha Mycelium

18 Asexual Reproduction

19 Fig. 26-3a, p. 558 Bud development

20 Fig. 26-3b, p. 558

21 Plasmogamy Fungi of two different mating types meet, hyphae fuse Fungi of two different mating types meet, hyphae fuse cytoplasm fuses cytoplasm fuses nuclei remain separate nuclei remain separate Fungi enter dikaryotic (n + n) stage Fungi enter dikaryotic (n + n) stage each new cell has one nucleus of each type each new cell has one nucleus of each type

22 Karyogamy Fusion of nuclei Fusion of nuclei takes place in hyphal tip takes place in hyphal tip results in diploid (2n) zygote nucleus results in diploid (2n) zygote nucleus

23 Genetic Divisions Meiosis Meiosis produces 4 different haploid (n) nuclei produces 4 different haploid (n) nuclei each nucleus becomes part of a spore each nucleus becomes part of a spore Mitosis Mitosis forms new mycelia when spores germinate forms new mycelia when spores germinate

24 Asexual Spores Can be produced by mitosis Can be produced by mitosis genetically similar genetically similar When these spores germinate When these spores germinate they also develop into mycelia they also develop into mycelia

25 Fungal Life Cycles

26 Fig. 26-4, p. 559 Large numbers of haploid (n) spores are produced by mitosis. Spore germinates and forms mycelium by mitosis. Asexual reproduction 1Spores germinate and form mycelia by mitosis. Mycelia Mycelia of two different mating types fuse at their tips, and plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) occurs. 2 6 Spores are released. Spores Sexual reproduction Haploid stage (n) Dikaryotic stage (n + n) 5 Meiosis results in four genetically different haploid ( n ) nuclei. Spores develop around nuclei. Diploid stage (2n) 3 Zygote nucleus (2n) Dikaryotic (n + n) mycelium develops. Dikaryotic mycelium 4 Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) occurs, forming a diploid (2 n ) zygote nucleus. 7 8 Meiosis Karyogamy Plasmogamy

27 KEY CONCEPTS Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually by means of spores Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually by means of spores

28 Learning Objective 4 Support the hypothesis that fungi are opisthokonts, more closely related to animals than to plants Support the hypothesis that fungi are opisthokonts, more closely related to animals than to plants

29 Flagellate Cells Animals and fungi have flagellate cells Animals and fungi have flagellate cells Example: chytrid gametes and spores Example: chytrid gametes and spores Flagellate cells propel themselves Flagellate cells propel themselves with single posterior flagellum with single posterior flagellum

30 Platelike Cristae Like animal cells, fungal cells have platelike cristae in their mitochondria Like animal cells, fungal cells have platelike cristae in their mitochondria

31 Opisthokonts Fungi are opisthokonts Fungi are opisthokonts along with animals and choanoflagellates along with animals and choanoflagellates based on chemical and structural characters based on chemical and structural characters

32 Fungal Evolution

33 Fig. 26-5, p. 560 ChytridsZygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Evolution of ascospores Evolution of basidiospores Evolution of dikaryotic stage Loss of flagellum Common flagellate ancestor

34 Learning Objective 5 Support the hypothesis that chytrids may have been the earliest fungal group to evolve from the most recent common ancestor of fungi Support the hypothesis that chytrids may have been the earliest fungal group to evolve from the most recent common ancestor of fungi

35 Chytrids (Chytridiomycetes) Produce flagellate cells during life cycle Produce flagellate cells during life cycle no other fungi have flagella no other fungi have flagella Probably earliest fungi to evolve from flagellate protist Probably earliest fungi to evolve from flagellate protist common ancestor of all fungi common ancestor of all fungi

36 Chytrid

37 Fig. 26-6, p µm

38 Learning Objective 6 List distinguishing characteristics, describe a typical life cycle, and give examples of each of these fungal groups: List distinguishing characteristics, describe a typical life cycle, and give examples of each of these fungal groups: chytridiomycetes chytridiomycetes zygomycetes zygomycetes glomeromycetes glomeromycetes ascomycetes ascomycetes basidiomycetes basidiomycetes

39 Chytrids 1 Reproduce both asexually and sexually Reproduce both asexually and sexually Gametes and zoospores are flagellate Gametes and zoospores are flagellate Allomyces Allomyces part of life is multicellular haploid thallus part of life is multicellular haploid thallus part is multicellular diploid thallus part is multicellular diploid thallus

40 Chytrids 2 Haploid thallus produces 2 types of flagellate gametes that fuse Haploid thallus produces 2 types of flagellate gametes that fuse Both plasmogamy and karyogamy occur Both plasmogamy and karyogamy occur producing flagellate zygote producing flagellate zygote

41 Chytrids 3 Diploid thallus bears zoosporangia Diploid thallus bears zoosporangia produce diploid zoospores, resting sporangia produce diploid zoospores, resting sporangia in which haploid zoospores form by meiosis in which haploid zoospores form by meiosis Haploid zoospores form new haploid thalli Haploid zoospores form new haploid thalli

42 Chytrid Life Cycle

43 Fig. 26-7a, p. 562 ChytridsZygomycetes Glomeromycetes AscomycetesBasidiomycetes Common flagellate ancestor

44 Fig. 26-7b, p. 562 Mature haploid thallus Sporangium 2 Haploid thallus produces two types of gametes by mitosis. Haploid zoospore grows into haploid thallus. Gamete type A Haploid zoospore Gamete type B Haploid zoospores are produced by meiosis. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Resting sporangium HAPLOID (n) GENERATION DIPLOID (2n) GENERATION Gametes fuse and their nuclei fuse, producing flagellate zygote. 3 Meiosis Plasmogamy and karyogamy 5 Meiosis occurs in resting sporangia. Resting sporangium Motile zygote Zoosporangium 4 Zygote germinates and develops into diploid thallus. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (by mitosis) Zoosporangia produce flagellate diploid zoospores by mitosis. Zoospores give rise to new diploid thalli. 7 Diploid zoospore 6 1

45 Zygomycetes 1 Rhizopus (black bread mold) Rhizopus (black bread mold) forms haploid thallus forms haploid thallus produces asexual spores and sexual spores produces asexual spores and sexual spores Asexual spores germinate Asexual spores germinate form new thalli form new thalli

46 Zygomycetes 2 In sexual reproduction In sexual reproduction hyphae of 2 different haploid mating types form gametangia hyphae of 2 different haploid mating types form gametangia Plasmogamy occurs Plasmogamy occurs as gametangia fuse as gametangia fuse

47 Zygomycetes 3 Karyogamy occurs Karyogamy occurs diploid zygote forms diploid zygote forms from which zygospore develops from which zygospore develops Meiosis Meiosis produces recombinant haploid zygospores produces recombinant haploid zygospores

48 Zygomycetes 4 When zygospores germinate When zygospores germinate each hypha develops a sporangium at its tip each hypha develops a sporangium at its tip Spores are released Spores are released develop into new hyphae develop into new hyphae

49 Zygomycete Life Cycle

50 Fig. 26-9a, p. 564 ChytridsZygomycetes Glomeromycetes AscomycetesBasidiomycetes Common flagellate ancestor

51 Fig. 26-9b, p. 564

52 Insert “Zygomycete life cycle” rhizopus_life_cycle.swf

53 Microsporidia Microsporidia (now zygomycetes) Microsporidia (now zygomycetes) are opportunistic pathogens are opportunistic pathogens penetrate and infect animal cells with long, threadlike polar tubes penetrate and infect animal cells with long, threadlike polar tubes

54 Infection by Microsporidium

55 Fig , p. 565 Microsporidian cell Polar tube Host cell 1 Spore of microsporidium has coiled polar tube. Spore ejects its polar tube and penetrates host cell. Infective cytoplasm is injected into host cell. 23

56 Fig , p. 565 Host cell 2. Spore ejects its polar tube and penetrates host cell. 3. Infective cytoplasm is injected into host cell. Microsporidian cell Polar tube 1. Spore of microsporidium has coiled polar tube. Stepped Art

57 Glomeromycetes 1 Phylum Glomeromycota Phylum Glomeromycota symbionts that form intracellular associations (mycorrhizae) with plant roots symbionts that form intracellular associations (mycorrhizae) with plant roots Endomycorrhizal fungi Endomycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae into root cells extend hyphae into root cells

58 Glomeromycetes 2 Arbuscular mycorrhizae Arbuscular mycorrhizae most common endomycorrhizae most common endomycorrhizae hyphae inside root cells form branched, tree- shaped structures (arbuscules) hyphae inside root cells form branched, tree- shaped structures (arbuscules) Glomeromycetes Glomeromycetes have coenocytic hyphae have coenocytic hyphae reproduce asexually with large, multinucleate spores (blastospores) reproduce asexually with large, multinucleate spores (blastospores)

59 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

60 Fig , p. 565 Cells of root cortex Root epidermis Vesicle Soil Root hair Arbuscule Spore Cortex cell Hyphae of fungus

61 Ascomycetes 1 Produce asexual spores (conidia) Produce asexual spores (conidia) Produce sexual spores (ascospores) in asci Produce sexual spores (ascospores) in asci Asci line a fruiting body (ascocarp) Asci line a fruiting body (ascocarp)

62 Conidia Conidia Ascocarp Ascocarp Asci Asci

63 Ascomycetes 2 Haploid mycelia of opposite mating types produce septate hyphae Haploid mycelia of opposite mating types produce septate hyphae Plasmogamy occurs, nuclei exchanged Plasmogamy occurs, nuclei exchanged Dikaryotic n + n stage occurs Dikaryotic n + n stage occurs hyphae form, produce asci and ascocarp hyphae form, produce asci and ascocarp

64 Ascomycetes 3 Karyogamy occurs Karyogamy occurs followed by meiosis followed by meiosis Recombinant nuclei divide by mitosis Recombinant nuclei divide by mitosis produce 8 haploid nuclei that develop into ascospores produce 8 haploid nuclei that develop into ascospores When ascospores germinate When ascospores germinate can form new mycelia can form new mycelia

65 Ascomycetes 4 Ascomycetes include Ascomycetes include yeasts yeasts cup fungi cup fungi morels morels truffles truffles pink, brown, and blue-green molds pink, brown, and blue-green molds Some ascomycetes form mycorrhizae Some ascomycetes form mycorrhizae others form lichens others form lichens

66 Ascomycete Life Cycle

67 Fig a, p. 567 ChytridsZygomycetes Glomeromycetes AscomycetesBasidiomycetes Common flagellate ancestor

68 Fig b, p. 567 Conidia In asexual reproduction, hyphae produce haploid conidia that can develop into new mycelia. Germinating conidium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (by conidia) Conidiophore Haploid (n) 9 When released, ascospores germinate and form new haploid mycelia. (+) mating type Haploid mycelia of opposite mating types both produce coenocytic sexual hyphae. 1 (–) mating type 2 Plasmogamy occurs as hyphae of the two mating types fuse and nuclei are exchanged. 8 Each nucleus becomes incorporated into an ascospore. Nuclei migrate Plasmogamy SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae form and produce asci. 3 HAPLOID ( n ) STAGE Mature ascus has eight haploid ascospores 7 Mitosis produces eight haploid nuclei. DIKARYOTIC STAGE (n + n) Second meiotic division DIPLOID (2n) STAGE First meiotic division Nuclei fuse Developing ascus with n + n nuclei Hyphae form an ascocarp. 4 Zygote Meiosis 6 Meiosis occurs, forming four haploid nuclei. Karyogamy Ascocarp 5 Karyogamy occurs in each ascus. Two haploid nuclei fuse, forming a diploid zygote nucleus. Mycelium 10

69 Insert “Sac fungi” sac_fungi_m.swf

70 Basidiomycetes 1 Produce sexual spores (basidiospores) Produce sexual spores (basidiospores) on outside of basidium on outside of basidium Basidia develop Basidia develop on surface of gills in mushrooms on surface of gills in mushrooms a type of basidiocarp (fruiting body) a type of basidiocarp (fruiting body) Hyphae in this phylum have septa Hyphae in this phylum have septa

71 Basidiomycete Fruiting Bodies

72 Basidiomycetes 2 Plasmogamy occurs Plasmogamy occurs fusion of 2 hyphae of different mating types fusion of 2 hyphae of different mating types Dikaryotic secondary mycelium forms Dikaryotic secondary mycelium forms Basidiocarp develops Basidiocarp develops basidia form basidia form

73 Basidiomycetes 3 Karyogamy occurs Karyogamy occurs producing diploid zygote nucleus producing diploid zygote nucleus Meiosis produces 4 haploid nuclei Meiosis produces 4 haploid nuclei become basidiospores become basidiospores When basidiospores germinate When basidiospores germinate form haploid primary mycelia form haploid primary mycelia

74 Basidium with Basidiospores

75 Fig , p. 570 Basidiospore Basidium 5 µm

76 Basidiomycetes 4 Basidiomycetes include Basidiomycetes include mushrooms mushrooms puffballs puffballs bracket fungi bracket fungi rusts rusts smuts smuts

77 Basidiomycete Life Cycle

78 Fig , p. 570 Basidiospore Basidium 5 µm

79 Insert “Club fungus life cycle” club_fungus_life_v2.swf

80 Explore fungus life cycles by clicking on the figures in ThomsonNOW.

81 KEY CONCEPTS According to current hypotheses, fungi evolved from a unicellular, flagellate protist and diverged into five main groups According to current hypotheses, fungi evolved from a unicellular, flagellate protist and diverged into five main groups

82 Learning Objective 7 What is the ecological significance of fungi as decomposers? What is the ecological significance of fungi as decomposers?

83 Decomposers Most fungi are decomposers Most fungi are decomposers break down organic compounds break down organic compounds dead organisms, leaves, garbage, wastes dead organisms, leaves, garbage, wastes into simpler nutrients that can be recycled into simpler nutrients that can be recycled

84 Learning Objective 8 What is the important ecological role of mycorrhizae? What is the important ecological role of mycorrhizae?

85 Mycorrhizae 1 Mutualistic relationships between fungi and roots of plants Mutualistic relationships between fungi and roots of plants Fungus supplies water and nutrient minerals to plant Fungus supplies water and nutrient minerals to plant Plant secretes organic compounds needed by fungus Plant secretes organic compounds needed by fungus

86 Mycorrhizae 2 Glomeromycetes form endomycorrhizal associations with roots Glomeromycetes form endomycorrhizal associations with roots Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes form ectomycorrhizae with tree roots Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes form ectomycorrhizae with tree roots do not penetrate root cells do not penetrate root cells

87 Mycorrhizal Associations

88 Learning Objective 9 What is the unique nature of a lichen? What is the unique nature of a lichen?

89 Lichen Symbiotic combination of fungus and photoautotroph (alga or cyanobacterium) Symbiotic combination of fungus and photoautotroph (alga or cyanobacterium) Photoautotroph provides fungus with organic compounds, shelter, water, minerals Photoautotroph provides fungus with organic compounds, shelter, water, minerals Lichens have 3 main growth forms: crustose, foliose, fruticose Lichens have 3 main growth forms: crustose, foliose, fruticose

90 Lichens

91 Fig a, p. 573 Soredia Surface layer (fungal hyphae) Fungal hyphae interwoven with photoautotroph Loosely woven hyphae Bottom layer (fungal hyphae) Rock or other surface to which lichen is attached

92 Fig b, p. 573 Fruticose liche (Ramalina) Crustose lichens (Bacidia, Lecanora) Foliose lichen (Parmelia)

93 Insert “Lichens” lichens.swf

94 Learn more about lichens by clicking on the figure in ThomsonNOW.

95 Learning Objective 10 How do fungi impact humans economically? How do fungi impact humans economically?

96 Useful Fungi Fungi are used Fungi are used as foods (mushrooms, morels, truffles) as foods (mushrooms, morels, truffles) in production of beer, wine, bread (yeasts) in production of beer, wine, bread (yeasts) to produce cheeses and soy sauce to produce cheeses and soy sauce to make citric acid and other industrial chemicals to make citric acid and other industrial chemicals

97 Edible Ascomycetes

98 Learning Objective 11 What is the importance of fungi to biology and medicine? What is the importance of fungi to biology and medicine? How do fungi infect plants and humans? How do fungi infect plants and humans? Identify at least three fungal plant diseases and three fungal animal diseases Identify at least three fungal plant diseases and three fungal animal diseases

99 Research Fungi are model organisms for molecular biology and genetics Fungi are model organisms for molecular biology and genetics yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae other fungi other fungi Biological control of insects Biological control of insects such as mosquitoes that transmit malaria such as mosquitoes that transmit malaria

100 Medications Fungi are used to make medications Fungi are used to make medications penicillin, other antibiotics penicillin, other antibiotics

101 Pathogens Fungi are opportunistic pathogens in humans Fungi are opportunistic pathogens in humans ringworm ringworm athlete’s foot athlete’s foot candidiasis candidiasis histoplasmosis histoplasmosis

102 Toxins Some fungi produce mycotoxins Some fungi produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins such as aflatoxins cause liver damage and cancer cause liver damage and cancer

103 Fungal Plant Diseases Fungal hyphae infect plants through stomata Fungal hyphae infect plants through stomata hyphal branches (haustoria) penetrate plant cells hyphal branches (haustoria) penetrate plant cells obtain nourishment from cytoplasm obtain nourishment from cytoplasm Include Include wheat rust wheat rust Dutch elm disease Dutch elm disease chestnut blight chestnut blight

104 Fungal Infection of Plants

105 Fig , p. 576 Spore Hypha Epidermis Stoma Airspace Leaf Haustoria

106 Fungal Plant Diseases

107 KEY CONCEPTS Fungi are of major ecological, economic, biological, and medical importance Fungi are of major ecological, economic, biological, and medical importance


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