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Ecosystems. What is the Ecosystem? An area of plants, animals, and micro-organisms (biotic factors) that share the same habitat including the non-living.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems. What is the Ecosystem? An area of plants, animals, and micro-organisms (biotic factors) that share the same habitat including the non-living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems

2 What is the Ecosystem? An area of plants, animals, and micro-organisms (biotic factors) that share the same habitat including the non-living features (abiotic factors). Sea Otter Story sea otter  sea urchin  kelp forest  herring  seals and sea lions  orca or killer whale Ecology: The study of the ecosystem

3 Organization of Ecology

4 What is a Habitat? The place where an organism lives. What is a niche? The organisms role in the ecosystem Produces and Consumers A producer converts sunlight into chemical energy. These are plants and algae. Also called autotrophs A consumer eats other organisms. Also called heterotrophs.

5 Types of consumers Herbivores: Feed directly on autotrophs (plants) Carnivores: Feed on other heterotrophs (animals) Scavenger: something that feeds on something that has already died. Omnivores: Feed on both autotrophs (plants) and other hetertrophs (animals) Decomposers: Break down and digest dead decaying material.

6 10% rule

7 Relationships Symbiosis: When organisms live together. Types of symbiosis: Commensalism: One species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit from the relationship: Parasitism: one organism lives at the expense of another. One benefits and the other is harmed but not killed. Memorization tip: mnemonics story Commensalism, Mutualism, Parasitism Can’t Make Pickles

8 Oxpecker and water buffalo Oxpecker rides the back of the buffalo and eats ectoparasites (parasites on the outside such as ticks). mutualism

9 2. Morel Mushroom and Elm Tree: The mushroom enters the root and the infected trees grow faster than others. When the tree dies the mushrooms surface. Mutualism

10 Flower and bee: The bee gets nectar from the flower and the flower is pollinated Mutualism

11 Termites and protozoa in stomach The protozoa digests the cellulose (wood) and has a nice place to live. The nutrients released are absorbed by the termite as well. Mutualism

12 Deer and bacteria in stomach: Bacteria have a nice place to live and help break down cellulose. Deer is able to digest woody, fibrous foods. mutualism

13 Algae and fungi to make lichen: Algae is photosynthetic and produces food. Fungi provides a safe place that is moist. mutualism

14 Grey squirrel and oak tree Squirrel hides acorns in soil. Up to 70% are lost and many of these grow into new oak trees. Mutualism

15 Lupine and nitrogen fixing bacteria Bacteria in root nodules prepare nitrogen so the plant can use it. Plant provides a safe place for bacteria to live. mutualism

16 Tapeworm and intestine Tapeworm anchors itself in the intestine with hooks. Absorbs nutrients digested by host. parasitism

17 Hookworm and lungs Hookworm enters your bare feet through the skin. Gets in blood stream and then develops in the lungs. Then are coughed up, swallowed and then passed out the body to infect someone else. parasitism

18 Liver fluke and snail The liver fluke eggs are eaten by the snail and use the snail as a host. The larva leave the snail and infest the flesh of fish forming cysts. The snail is not harmed. commensalism

19 Venus's flower basket sponge and shrimp A group of shrimp swim into the sponge and hide in it for protection. The shrimp eat each other until one male and one female remain. They are now full grown and cannot escape the sponge. Commensalism

20 Pearl fish and sea cucumber The Pearl fish live in the Sea Cucumber's cloaca which they enter through the anus. The Pearl fish then breaks through the respiratory membrane and situates its home. The Pearl fish feed on the Sea Cucumbers respiratory tissues and gonads. Parasitism

21 Boxer Crab and sea anemones The crab places the sea anemones on the front claws (chilipeds). The sea anemones deter predators with their stinging cells protecting the crab. The crab moves around making the sea anemone mobile (normally sessile). Mutualism

22 Cat and Human Cat provides companion and catches rodents. Human provides home and food. Mutualism

23 Ambrosia beetles and ambrosia fungi Beetles carry fungus and then plant the fungus inside logs. The fungus grows and the beetle eats it. Commensalism or mutualism depending on your perspective

24 17.The human botfly catches a mosquito and places its eggs on the legs of the mosquito. When the mosquito lands on a person body heat causes the eggs to hatch and the larva burrow into the skin. Commensalism with mosquito Parasitism with human

25 18. Acacia trees and ants: The trees offer the ants hollow thorns in which to live and food to eat, and the ants protect the tree from herbivores as well as vines which would overcrowd the tree and kill it. Mutualism

26 Final Story: What does this have to do with permaculture?

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