4 Biomes are described by their vegetation because plants that grow in an area determine the other organisms that live there.Plants have specialized structures or adaptations that allow them to survive in a particular biome.Ex: 1. Desert plants like cactus- large cuticle, noleaves2. Tundra plants are short from lack of water
5 ClimateMain factor in determining what plants can grow in a particular area.Climate refers to temp, precipitation, humidity, and wind in an area over a long period of time.
6 As water and temperature increase, vegetation becomes higher and denser
7 Biomes also vary with latitude and altitude Latitude- the distance north or south of the equator and it is measured indegreesAltitude- the height of an object above sea levelClimate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase
9 The temperate region of the world, between 30 and 60 degrees north latitude and 30 and 60 degrees south latitude is where most of the food in the world is grown.
10 Forest Biomes most widespread and most diverse biomes Forests exist where temps are mild to hot and rainfall is plentiful3 main types of forest biomes
11 1. Tropical Rain Forestlocated in a belt around the Earth near the equatorhelp regulate world climatePlay a vital role in the N, O, and C cyclesEnormous amount of biodiversity, only 7% of the land but 50% of all plant and animal species
12 Tropical Rain Forest Always humid and warm Get about 200 to 450 cm of rain a yearGet sunlight year roundVery poor soil, nutrients locked up in plantsRunoff from Rainforests is often as pure as distilled water
14 Layers of the Rain Forest 1. Emergent layer- consists of the tallest trees m in height.Trees in this layer grow and emerge in direct sunlight Eagles, monkeys, bats and snakes live here.2. Upper Canopy layer- Trees growing up to 30 m tall. Forms a dense layer that absorbs up to 95 % of the sunlight.
15 Layers of the Rain Forest 3. Lower Canopy layer- receives less light than the upper canopy.Epiphytes live here. They live off of other trees.Orchids and mistletoe are examples.Most animals that live in the rainforest live in the upper and lower canopy.4. Understory- Found underneath the canopy. Very little lightreaches here.Plants here grow only up to 3.5 m tall. Many have large flat leaves.
17 Threats to the Rain Forests We lose 100 acres of rain forest every minute of every day to:• Logging• Agriculture• Oil exploration• Exotic pet trading
18 2. Temperate Rain Forests • Occurs in North America, Australia, and New Zealand• Large amounts of precipitation, high humidity and moderate temps• Trees are covered in mosses• Forest floor is covered in ferns• Sitka spruce and Douglas fir can reach m tall (270ft)
20 3. Temperate Deciduous Forest • Located between 30 degrees and 50 degrees north latitude• Trees have broad flat leaves that they drop each fall• Winter temperatures often drop below freezing, meaning little water for plants• Receives cm of precipitation annually
21 Temperate Deciduous Forest • Rich deep soils due to fallen leaves• Tall trees like oak, maple, birch are the top layer with smaller trees and shrubs covering the understory• More light reaches the forest floor than in rain forests so more mosses, ferns and herbs grow here
23 4. Taiga- AKA- Boreal Forest AKA- Northern Coniferous Forest • Found in the northern hemisphere just below the Arctic circle• Winters are long (6-10 months) with temps below freezing• Growing season in summer may be as short as 50 days• Forest floor has few plants because of the acidic pine needles• Soil forms slowly because decomposition is slow
27 Tropical Grasslands • Called Savannas • Located in tropical and subtropical areas near the equator and between tropical rainforests and desert biomes• Contain grasses, scattered trees and shrubs• Large variety of grazing animals and predators• Receive little precipitation
28 Tropical Grasslands • Have a wet and a dry season • Grass fires sweep through and return nutrients to the soil• Plants have large horizontal root systems to help obtain water during the dry season• Some trees lose their leaves to help retain water• Animals include: elephants, gazelles, rhinos, giraffes all of which are different heights to reduce competition
31 Temperate Grasslands• Dominated by grasses and has very few trees• Only receive a moderate amount of rainfall (50-88 cm a year)• Most fertile soil of any biome• Many have been replaced with crops, farms and grazing land
32 Temperate Grasslands• Few natural grasslands remain• Found in the interior of continents where there is too little rain for trees• Found in North American, Russian steppes, and in South America
33 3 types of temperate grassland *(determined by the rainfall and vegetation that grows there)1. Short grass prairie (about 25 cm rain per year)2. Mixed or middle grass prairie (about 50 cm rain per year)3. Tall grass prairie ( up to 88 cm rain per year)
34 Short Grass Prairie Mixed Grass Prairie Big Blue Stem Grass 6 ft tallTall Grass Prairie
35 Animals• Pronghorn• Bison,• Badgers• Prairie dogs• Owls and hawks
37 Chaparral • Temperate woodland biome • Dominated by broad-leafed evergreen shrubs than by evergreen trees• Located primarily in coastal areas that have Mediterranean climates (30 degrees North or South of Equator)• Common plants- scrub oak, olive trees, sage, manzanita
38 Chaparral • Most leaves have oils that promote burning • Most plants here can resprout from small bits of surviving plant tissue• Animals include- quail, lizards, chipmunks and mule deer• The greatest threat to this biome is human development, because they are near the ocean and have a mild climate
40 Deserts • Driest places on Earth • Less than 25 cm rain a year • Little to no vegetation• Plants found there are called succulents• Some animals like toads survive the summers by estivating• Most animals are also nocturnal
42 Tundra • Located primarily north of the arctic circle • Most precipitation remains frozen most of the year• Soil supports tough grasses and shrubs• Mosses and lichens are common• Plants have wide shallow root because of the permafrost• Animals include migratory birds that go their to breed, caribou, wolves, musk ox, deer, moose
43 Tundra• Tundra is one of the most fragile biomeso Food chains are simple and easily disruptedo Land is easily damage and slow to recovero Oil exploration