Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: The War Between the States. I. Years that Led to the War A.Ohioans Against Slavery 1. NW Ordinance of 1787 forbid slavery in NW Territory 2. Many."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3: The War Between the States
I. Years that Led to the War A.Ohioans Against Slavery 1. NW Ordinance of 1787 forbid slavery in NW Territory 2. Many people who were against slavery settled in Ohio. 3. Thomas Worthington & Edward Tiffin had been prominent slave owners who had freed their slaves before moving to Ohio.
4. Abolitionists – People who worked to end slavery. –St. Clairsville, Ohio – Site of Ohio’s 1 st abolitionist group. –Had a newspaper (The Philanthropist) that was the 1 st to call for an end to slavery. 5.Lane Theological Center – Cincinnati, Ohio. * One of the earliest abolitionist centers in Ohio. * Some citizens were upset and all abolitionist activity there ceased. * Leaders of the movement moved to Oberlin, Ohio and eventually opened Oberlin College.
B. The Underground Railroad 1.A system of secret routes and safe hiding places for helping slaves escape the south to northern states and on to Canada. 2.Once into Canada slaves became free men because slavery was illegal in Canada. 3.The long journey would have been impossible without assistance.
4. The name comes from an angry slave owner who chased a slave into Ripley, Ohio. * Tice Davids was chased all the way to the Ohio River..jumped in..swam across to Ripley, Ohio. * His owner grabbed a boat and rowed across…searched for the Tice and questioned many in town. * He later declared that the slave had escaped on an underground railroad..and the name stuck.
5.Stations – Places where runaways were hidden. 6.Conductors – People who helped the runaways travel from station to station. 7.Contributing Members – People who provided food, clothing, and shelter to runaways. 8.Ohio became a center for the Underground Railroad because of it’s location next to slave states such as Virginia and Kentucky.
C. Helping Runaway Slaves 1.Levi Coffin – “Cincinnatian” who became known as the President of the Underground Railroad. 2.Helped over 2,000 runaways travel across Ohio and on into Canada. 3.http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=mIlIFgXPNbMhttp://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=mIlIFgXPNbM 4.http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=rQaVeAl8Xrw&NR=1http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=rQaVeAl8Xrw&NR=1
3.John Rankin – Reverend from Ripley, Ohio (directly across the Ohio River from Maysville, Ky.) 4.For 40 yrs a lantern hung at the Rankin House..guiding slaves to his home and safety. 5.There were over 20 routes in Ohio.
Historic Rankin House in Ripley, Ohio
YouTube Videos Cincinnati’s Role in the Underground Railroad - “In Their Path” - Video documenting the path of African Americans through Ohio and into Canada. Cincinnati Underground Railroad Video
D. Exciting Escapes Sometimes extreme measures had to be taken to escape detection. Hiding slaves in cargo in wagons, trains, or in family homes, barns etc.. Members of abolitionist communities often relied on each other to distract slave owners or hunters. Joseph Rowe hid some escapees in a wagon of flour and drove it to Oberlin, Ohio from Mansfield, Ohio..in order to find safety.
E. Fugitive Slave Law Many southern states complained to Congress about citizens helping slaves not only escape slavery, but helping them along the way to freedom. Fugitive Slave Law – Ordered federal officers to capture fugitive slaves who had escaped the south. –Passed in 1850 –Fugitive – runaway slave –Made it illegal to help fugitive slaves and you could be arrested. –Slave owners thought of slaves as property that they owned rather than human beings.
Southern slave owners were happy with this law. They greatly disliked the work of abolitionist groups and the Underground RR. They thought the whole idea was a violation of their rights. Made the work of the Underground RR and abolitionists more dangerous.
Clashes occurred over the law Oberlin 1858 – John Price, a fugitive from Ky. Had been working and living in Ohio. Federal agents captured him and moved him to Wellington, Ohio. Agents were met by an angry mob of abolitionists who used force to free Price. Price escaped to Canada and 37 abolitionists were arrested and charged with violating the Fugitive Slave Law. Angry Ohioans reacted and raised money for their defense. Only 2 of the group were given any sentences and it was very light. The strong feelings of Ohioans about the case had great impact on it’s outcome.
F. Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a Cincinnati resident for 18 years. Published in Daughter of Lyman Beecher, the head of Lane Theological Seminary..and wife of Lane teacher, Calvin Stowe.
Fictional story based on the evils of slavery. The character, Eliza, runs away from the south and crosses the icy Ohio River using the light in John Rankin’s window as her guide. 300,000 copies sold..mostly in the north. Brought widespread attention to both the evils of slavery and the abolitionist movement.
G. John Brown’s Raid John Brown was an very extreme abolitionist & sheep farmer. Believed in the use of violence to end slavery. Planned a raid, or surprise attack, on the U.S. government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. The plan was to steal weapons and arm southern slaves to lead a rebellion against southern states.
John Brown’s raid was put down by Robert E. Lee. Brown was arrested and hanged for treason. Many in the south felt the punishment was unjust and northerners felt that it was too harsh. The whole event led to increased tensions among citizens in the north and south. John Brown’s Raid (1:06)
H. The Republican Party Forms Political leaders in Ohio brought together members of the Whig and Free Soil parties to form a new political party based on stopping the spread of slavery. Salmon P. Chase, an abolitionist and former Senator, was chosen as their candidate for Ohio Governor. Chase was elected to 2 terms as Ohio Governor. Today..NKU law school is named after Salmon Chase.
Even though the party was formed as an anti-slavery party there were disagreements over how to go about attacking slavery related issues – Republicans elected another Ohio Governor as the party continued to grow in popularity and power. Southern states slowly began to secede or break away from the U.S. Attempted to form a new nation – The Confederate States of America.
II. Ohio and the War Between the States A.Preparing for War North had a larger population, stronger economy, more railroads, and farmland..and fully expected a quick victory. The Confederacy had more experienced soldiers and all of the top Generals from the U.S. Army. ROBERT E. LEE 30,000 Ohioans answered President Lincoln’s call for Ohio soldiers. An army training center was set up in Cincinnati..it was called Camp Dennison.
B. Ohio’s Soldiers in Action. Ohio’s troops under the command of General McClellan were needed to protect against Virginia’s potential threat against southern Ohio. General McClellan and the Ohio soldiers drove the Va. Forces out of the counties in Va along Ohio’s borders. Those counties became the state of West Virginia. Ohio no longer had a Confederate state on it’s border.
C. Ohio’s Union Party Union Party was formed because there were those in Ohio who believed that the war effort was not progressing well under Republican leadership. Republicans and “War” Democrats came together and openly blamed the President and other Republican leaders for the troubles with the war. Elected David Tod as Governor of Ohio. Ohio remained a pro-union state under their leadership.
D. The Copperheads Group of northern citizens that spoke out against the President and the war. Led by Congressman Clement Vallandighm from Dayton, Ohio.
They called for peace under any cost. Felt that a Union victory would give the federal government too much power. Became outspoken critic of the war. Lost favor..and re- election in Ohio. Broke U.S. Army law that forbid such outspoken criticism of the President and the war and was sentenced to prison. Lincoln commuted his sentence, but he was forced to move to the south.
Election of 1863 Ohio showed the nation that it was a very strong supporter of the Union and supporter of the war effort Union party was successful in defeating Vallandigham for the office of the Governor.
The Defense of Cincinnati Cincinnati had over 250,000 citizens who were greatly concerned about a Confederate raid as the CSA moved into Lexington and approached Cincy. Ohioans rallied to the defense of Cincinnati. Thousands of citizens rushed to Cincy where they were armed with plain hunting rifles…and nicknamed “squirrel hunters”. They outnumbered the CSA and the attack never came.
Morgan’s Raid 1863 – Confederate General, John H. Morgan attacked some counties along the Ohio River. Harrison was a point of attack and Morgan and his raiders advanced into Harrison taking shelter in local homes and stealing supplies and food as they made their way east into Clermont County. Morgan and his raiders were eventually defeated in eastern Ohio and locked in the Columbus penitentiary.
2003 Morgan’s Raid Re-Enactment –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4J1vzZe7YY&NR=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w4J1vzZe7YY&NR=1 Harrison, Ohio Civil War Re-Enactment – September 2009 –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzw1ZI8C5ishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzw1ZI8C5is